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Christine San Diego

on 9 February 2013

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Transcript of Veneration

Renato Constantino Veneration without Understanding The "Limited Filipinos" Limited victory
Decolonization of the Filipinos before being true Filipinos Rizal spoke on behalf of the indios but he wasn't one himself
Manifested in his novels (Ibarra-spanish mestizo)
Death was for the people but acted against them
Underestimated the power and talents of the masses Ilustrado Liberty versus freedom Freedom is something to be deserved
liberty did not equate independence
political independence was not a prerequisite to freedom Precursor - A person or thing that comes before another of the same kind
Mendicancy - beggary: the state of being a beggar Precursors of Mendicancy "A people have every right to be free."
colonialism: freedom = diploma Americans used our belief in Rizal to colonize us education gives them the right to speak for the people
ilustrados of today are shocked by rallies and demonstrations
not accustomed to people moving (or thinking) on their own Elitist form of leadership Hispanized sector of our population
Rizal called Ibarra a Filipino-Spaniard
No different from modern-day mendicants (Americanized) Ilustrados Ilustrados and Indios Not as hispanized as the ilustrados
Together with the Katipunan, he embodied the unity of revolutionary consciousness and revolutionary practice Bonifacio Indios Ilustrados Indios and the Ilustrados 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr rose in arms
more legitimate
claim of
being a filipino by
freeing himself waits for Spain to
dispense justice
and reform
revealed their
behaviors as their
limitated goals
when they joined
the Revolution he was a mere moment in our evolution
provided the model of a form of heroism that culminated in martyrdom
monument to the race despite his limitations Rizal as an Ilustrado Every nation is always discovering or rediscovering heroes in its past or its present Hero-worship - historical and critical
conscious of historical conditions
ready to admit at what point that hero's applicability ceases to be of current value Blind Adoration Evolving personality within an evolving historical period
His martyrdom was tainted by his attackes out independist struggle
His death is only a moment in history Adoration for Rizal We invoke Rizal when discussing specific problems today
Reflection of intellectual timidity
Reluctance to espouse new causes unless sanctions are found in Rizal Lack of creative thinking Did not anticipate the problems of today
Was not familiar with economic tools of analysis that are being used by foreigners and even Filipinos to regress the economy Limitations of Rizal Social criticisms are still valid
carry-overs of the feudal and colonial society of his time
study these criticisms and take necessary steps to change them Still relevant His controversial views especially about the friars and the religion itself
Resistance to Rizal bill
Use of censored Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo Critical thinking is needed Rizal was a progressive force
His ideas could still be used for salutary change
Cults have turned him into a god
Remember his weaknesses were the weakness of society
He was a product of society that nurtured him Negation of Rizal We cannot rely on Rizal alone
Discard the belief that we are incapable of producing heroes
A true hero is one with the masses - not above them
A whole people can be viewed as heroes Need for new heroes Getting ready to produce new heroes
Silent people make history even without recognition
Rizal was a catalyzer in the metamorphosis of the decolonized indio Today If there had been no Rizal, another type of talent would have appeared
Would have given a different style to the historic struggle but the general trend engendered by the particular social relations would have remained the same
Without Rizal there may have been a delay in the maturation of our libertarian struggle, but the development of that period would have insured the same result
Rizal may have accelerated it
Rizal may have given form and articulation and color to the aspirations of the people For some Rizalists
This has been a source of embarassment in as much as they picture him as the supreme symbol of our struggle for freedom
Others privately agree with his stand
His insistence on the primacy of education
They do not dare to praise Rizal’s stand against the Revolution
They are prudently silent for Rizal’s sake The indios led by Rizal gained acceptability as Filipinos because they proved their equality with the Spaniards in terms of both culture and property
Rizal’s intellectual excellence “paved” the way for the winning of the name for the natives of the land
It was an unconscious struggle which led to a conscious recognition of the negative meaning of indio
Thus, the winning of the term “Filipino” was an anti-colonial victory for it signified the recognition of racial equality between Spaniards and Filipinos An excerpt from Rizal’s letter to Blumentritt:
…under the present circumstances, we do not want separation from Spain. All that we ask is greater attention, better education, better government employees, one or two representatives and greater security for our persons and property. Spain could always win the appreciation of the Filipinos if she were only reasonable Propaganda
Reformists could not shake off their Spanish orientation
Wanted accomodation within the ruling system Differences between the creoles and the “genuine” Filipinos soon set in
Indios bravos – “transforming an epithet into a badge of honor”
Birth of La Solaridad
Leaders were indios
Editor: Lopez-Jaena – not a creole or a mestizo
Espoused the cause of liberalism and fought for democratic solutions to the problems that beset the Spanish colonies Espana en Filipinas
Sought to take the place of the earlier Revista Circulo Hispano Filipino
An undertaking mainly of Spaniards and Spanish mestizos
Baldomero Roxas: the only non-Spaniard staff
1887: first issue came out – “moderate” in tone and failed to win the sympathy of the native elements Correct the common impression:
That Filipinos who were in Spain during the Propaganda period were all indios
The original Circulo Hispanico-Filipino was dominated by creoles and penisulares
1800: the Filipino community in Spain was a conglomerate of creoles, Spanish mestizos and sons of urbanized indios and Chinese mestizos The term “Filipino” originally belonged to creoles – the Spaniards born in the Philippines – the Espanoles-Filipinos
Natives were called indios
Spanish mestizos who could pass for whites claimed to be creoles and therefore Filipino
19th century: Hispanized and urbanized indios along with Spanish mestizos and sangley mestizos began to call themselves Filipinos Metamorphosis of the term “Filipino”
Realize the importance of Rizal’s contribution in this regard
Interdependence between material conditions and consciousness as manifested in the evolution of the word “Filipino” in terms of its widening applicability and deeper significance through succeeding periods of our history Filipino nationhood
An important tool of analysis
Conceptual weapon of struggle
Some are not aware that the social conditions today demand that the true Filipino is consciously striving for decolonization and independence Social contradictions had not ripened sufficiently in his time to reveal clearly the essential disparateness between class and national goals
Neither could he have transcended his class limitations, for his cultural upbringing was such that affection for Spain and Spanish civilization precluded the idea of breaking the chains of colonialism
He had become a Spaniard first before becoming a Filipino He expressed its demands in terms of human liberty and human dignity and thus encompassed the wider aspirations of all the people
He equated class interest with people’s welfare
Did this in good faith, unaware of any contradictions between the two
Product of his society, could be expected to voice only the aims that were within the competence of his class Great men are those who read the times and have a deeper understanding of reality
Their insights make them conversant with their periods and which enable them to articulate the needs of people
Rizal, the illustrado, fulfilled this function, for in voicing the goals of his class he had to include the aspirations of the entire people The lordly friar who had been partly responsible for the isolation of the islands became the target of attacks
Anti clericalism became the ideological style of the period Economic developments led to improvement in communications
Functional road systems, railroad lines, postal services, telegraph, submarine cable, Manila’s water system was modernized, street cars, telephone and electric lights in the metropolitan region
Liberalism had invaded the country as a result of the reduction of the Spain-Manila voyage to 30 days
Opening of the Suez canal
The mestizo culture became the crude ideological framework of the fermet among the affluent indios and mestizos. Not a hero in a sense that the Revolution broke out despite his refusal to lead it and continued despite his condemnation of it
He was the first Filipino but he was only a limited Filipino, the illustrado Filipino, who fought for national unity but feared the Revolution
Loved his mother country, but in his own illustrado way Rizal
Was able to press the social needs of the period, needs that arose out of general and particular historical forces
A hero in a sense that he was able to see the problems generated by historical force, discern the new social needs created by the historical development of new social relationships, and take an active part in meeting these needs But even WITHOUT him, the nationalist struggle would have ensued
The fundamental cause of mass action is NOT the utterances of a leader; rather, these leaders have been impelled to action by historical forces unleashed by social development Rizal’s acceptability
He was safely dead by the time the Americans began their aggression
No embarrassing anti-American quotations could ever be attributed to him
Rizal’s dramatic martyrdom had already made him the symbol of Spanish oppression
Rizal belonged to the illustrados – the class they were cultivating and building up for leadership Taft on Rizal:
“the greatest Filipino, a physician, a novelist and a poet (who) because his struggle for a betterment of conditions under Spanish rule, was unjustly convicted and shot…”
Public image that Americans desired for a Filipino national hero
A hero who would not run against the grain of American colonial policy The reason for the enthusiastic American attitude becomes clear in the following appraisal of Rizal by Forbes:
Rizal never advocated independence,
nor did he advocate armed resistance
to the government. He urged reform
from within by publicity, by public
education, and appeal to the public
conscience 1901: William Howard Taft suggested that the Filipinos should be given a national hero
Taft chose Rizal as a model over
Aguinaldo – too militant
Bonifacio – too radical
Mabini – unregenerate Rizal’s reaction is unexpected, coming as it did from a man whose life and labors were supposed to have been dedicated to the cause of his country’s freedom
He would have been considered a traitor
Rizal rejected the one act which really synthesized our nationalist aspirations, and yet we consider him a nationalist leader Because we refuse to analyze the significance of his rejection, our understanding of Rizal and his role in our national development remains superficial
A disservice to the event, to the man, and to ourselves Others do not think it is important to dwell on this contradiction between our Revolution and our national hero
Afraid to stir a hornet’s nest of controversy
The Philippine Revolution
Overshadowed by the omnipresent figure and the towering reputation of Rizal
Rizal took no part in the revolution and in fact rejected it
The genereal regard for our revolution is not as higha s it should be Manifesto of December 15, 1986 addressed to the Filipino people In our country,
Our national hero was not the leader of our Revolution
He repudiated the revolution
He placed himself against Bonifacio
When he was arrested, he was on his way to Cuba to use his medical skills in the service of Spain national revolutions = a peak of achievements
A period in a nation’s history when the people were most united, most involved, and most active in the fight for freedom
Almost always the leader of the revolution becomes the principal hero of his people Estanislao, Mara Therese
San Diego, Christine Ginette Veneration Without Understanding This was a victory in the realm of consciousness, a victory in a racial sense
Only a partial gain
Rizal rejected the real decolonization
Beguiled by the new colonizer (Americans), most Filipinos followed the example of Rizal
The development of the concept of national consciousness stopped short of real decolonization
Have not yet distinguished the true Filipino from the developing Filipino The Concept of Filipino Nationhood Native beneficiaries saw a new world of affluence opening for themselves and their class
goal: equality with the peninsulares - in practical economic and political terms
Equality with the Spaniard = equality of opportunity
Did not realize yet that the real equality must be based on national freedom and independence
Nationalist consciousness – a consciousness made possible by market situation The Ideological Framework Rizal lived in a period of great economic changes
Cultural and political ferment
The country was undergoing grave and deep alterations which resulted in a national awakening
Non-spanish commercial houses monopolized the import-export trade
Opening of ports enabled theses non-Spanish to establish branches beyond Manila Innovation and Change Without Rizal, there would have developed other talents
Without del Pilar, another propagandist would have emerged
That Rizal possessed a particular talent which influenced the style of the period was accidental
That he was executed on December 30 only added more drama The Role of Rizal Although Rizal was already a revered figure an became more so after his martyrdom, it cannot be denied that his pre-eminence among our heroes was partly the result of American sponsorship
Encouraging a Rizal cult
Minimizing the importance of other heroes An American-Sponsored Hero Rizal’s refusal to align himself with the revolutionary forces and his vehement condemnation of the mass movement of its leaders, have placed Filipinos in a dilemma.
Either the revolution was wrong but we can’t disown it, or Rizal was wrong but we can’t disown him either Rizal and the Revolution
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