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Sharanga Vijendra

on 31 March 2015

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Transcript of Smog

design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
1)The Issue
What is smog?
How is it produced?
What are the chemical reactions behind this issue?
What are the effects?
2)Correction to the Issue
3) Careers
Pollution Control Technologist
4) Video

Smog is a yellow/blackish fog in the atmosphere and is a major contribution to air pollution.

In the early 1900s the term
was used to describe a mixture of both smoke and fog, which came from burning coal.

Nowadays smog that we see is known as photochemical smog which is a combination of both primary and secondary pollutants.

Photochemical smog occurs mostly in dry and sunny cities.

What is smog?
Smog is formed when sunlight/UV light reacts with nitrogen oxides and a volatile organic compound.
Firstly, nitrogen oxides and a VOC reacts with UV light/sunlight.
The sunlight breaks down the nitrogen oxides and the products form an ozone which is called a ground-level ozone.
During the same time the nitrogen oxides reacts with VOCs to form Peroxyacetyl Nitrates (PAN).
How is smog produced?
Chemical Reactions
By: Sharanga, Soha, Lachlan
Effects of Smog
Reactant #1
1) Nitrogen Oxides:
Nitrogen Oxides are binary compound of Nitrogen(N) and Oxygen(O).

Nitrogen Oxides are produced from motor vehicle exhausts or from the burning of coal, oil, diesel fuel.
Chemical Reaction- Products
1) Peroxyacetyl Nitrates (PAN):

Peroxyacetyl Nitrate is one of the products formed when nitrogen oxides react with a VOC with the presence of sunlight.
PAN is very harmful cially to plants
Reactant #2
2) Volatile Organic Compounds:
How is this issue being corrected?
Relation to Issue - Toxicology:
Education Requirements - Toxicologist:

Toxicologists take a look at the health effects that toxic chemicals such as smog can have on humans. Effects like difficulty breathing, asthma etc. They also inform on how to deal with the harm that chemicals like smog can have.
Average Expected Canadian Salary:
$78, 747
Four year bachelor of science degree in toxicology, biochemistry, pharmacy, pharmacology, or chemistry
Master's or doctoral degree in toxicology or a field closely related
In order to specialize, medical or veterinary toxicologist have to first become physicians or veterinarians

Education Requirements - Meteorology:
Evaluate and predict weather
Research reasons behind the progress of weather, climate and atmosphere
Inform public of weather forecasts
Relation to Issue - Meteorology:

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) are chemicals that evaporate really quickly into the atmosphere.

Distinguish and analyze the effects of chemicals when consumed by humans or animals
Report findings and present at court
Carry out experiments of plants and animals
Inform on the proper way to handle toxic substances
Studying the reasons behind the change of weather is one of the many things meteorologists study about. There are multiple reasons behind climate change, smog being one of them. Meteorologists look at how smog effects the climate and how its changing due to the smog.
From the chemicals that form smog it is obvious that it is very harmful to humans and the environment.

If a whole city is covered in smog the effects are felt immediately:
ex: Hydrogen (H) and Carbon(C)
Solvent use, industrial processes, gasoline evaporation and vehicles produce volatile organic compound emissions.

1) Humans
2) Environment
Effect on humans
Major Exposure
Lung cancer/ lung tissue inflammation
Premature deaths
Bronchial constrictions and etc
Kidney failure
Liver diseases and etc
The human body finds it difficult when it comes to defending itself from smog. However, the effects depend on the amount of exposure from smog. Some effects are:
Minor Exposure
Eye irritation
Respiratory irritation
Heart burns
Effects on the Environment/Wildlife
Since smog contains toxic chemicals not only are humans affected by it, the environment is equally affected
Video on Photochemical Smog
Chemical Reaction- Products #2
Ozone (O3)
When the nitrogen oxides break down with presence of sunlight the by-products form ground level ozone.
Bachelor or masters degree in meteorology, physics or mathematics
Doctoral degree as a research scientist in meteorology
For operational meteorologists, nine months of formal training provided by Environment Canada

Average Expected Canadian Salary:
$91, 908

Pollution Control Technologist:
Organize assessments to decide the condition of the environment and the levels of pollution
Collect samples of air,water, and soil based on procedure
Take part in inspection of air, water, and solid waste management
Manage all monitoring apparatus
Control data collecting stations
organize reports and display the results for any clients and colleagues
Clarify analytic results and assess them

Relation to Issue - Pollution Control Technologist:
Air pollution, when combined with other chemicals in the atmosphere, causes smog. Pollution Control Technologists manage pollution levels and advice in ways to prevent it thus reducing chances of smog forming.

Applicable Education Programs - Pollution Control Technologists:
Environmental technology, science, engineering technology and earth science

Expected average canadian salary:

2) Ozone (O3)
When nitrogen oxides breaks down from UV light an ozone forms from the by products of the trogen oxides.
The ozone is also called ground level ozone which is very harmful to the environment
Some affects on the environment are:
Plants start to discolour.
Plants stop growing because of the decrease in photosynthesis.
Plants physicaaly get damadged through abrasion.
Vegetation, forests, wildlife all get destroys.
Toxic chemicals ruin the soil-nutrients.
Wildlife habitats get destroyed
Wildlife die due to chemicals
A catalytic converter is a small piece of a car's exhaust system, it contains a catalyst that will change harmful pollutants into less harmful ones, to help reduce air pollution and the amount of ozone forming pollutants being released into the atmosphere through vehicle exhaust.

Catalytic converters make use of reduction reactions in order to reduce harmful pollution from vehicle exhaust.

They use metals like platinum and rhodium to reduce the fumes first, then oxidize them with platinum and palladium.

By using a catalytic converter, we reduce harmful nitrogen oxides to the elements nitrogen and oxygen, which are both found naturally in the atmosphere, and are much safer

Boundless. Photochemical Smog.Retrieved on March 30, 2015 from
Canada's smoggiest places : Canadian Geographic Magazine À la Carte - May/June 2000. (n.d.). Retrieved March 19, 2015, from
Cobb Jody. (2008). smog. Retrieved on March 30, 2015 from http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/smog/?ar_a=1
Double Inc. (2015). myBlueprint. Retrieved on March 19, from
Eco Canada. (2015). Eco Canada. Retrieved on March 30, 2015 from
Environmental Indicators. (n.d.). Retrieved March 20, 2015, from http://www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=en&n=0870FFFC-1
Fuller, G. (n.d.). Pollutionwatch: Diesel cars emit more nitrogen oxides than petrol cars. Retrieved March 18, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/
Gow Tracey. (1996). Photochemical Smog. Retrieved on March 30, 2015 from
Oblack Rachel. (2004). Smog. Retrieved on March 30, 2015 from
Kahlon, A., & Kang, T. (n.d.). Catalytic Converters. Retrieved March 18, 2015, from http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Kinetics/Case_Studies:_Kinetics/Catalytic_Converters
Ontario. (2010). Ministry of the Environment and Climate Control. Retrieved on March 30,
from http://www.airqualityontario.com/science/transboundary.php
University of Washington. (2013). University of Washington. Retrieved on March 21, 2015 from
WALKER® EXHAUST SYSTEMS :: Understanding the Catalytic Converter. (n.d.). Retrieved March 19, 2015, from http://www.walkerexhaust.com/support/understanding-catalytic-converter

* therefore, both peroxyacetyl nitrates and ground level ozone is formed.
Grade 10
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