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8 Stages of Genocide
Transcript of 8 Stages of Genocide
What Defines a Genocide?
Where Have They Happened?
Why Have They Occurred?
How Does the World Stop Them?
The 1948 U.N. Convention on the
Prevention and Punishment of the
Crime of Genocide
Genocide: Acts Committed with the Intent to Destroy, in whole
or in part, a National, Ethnic, Racial, or Religious Group
A) The Mental
B) The Physical
Killing members of the group
Causing Serious bodily or mental harm to the group
Deliberately causing conditions upon the group calculated to bring about their destruction in whole or in part
Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group
Forciblly transferring children from the group to another group
A + B (in any form) = Genocide
With This Definition in Mind, How Many
Examples of Genocide can you name in
20th and 21st Centuries?
During & After WWI
Between 1 and 3 million killed
Ottoman Turks persecuting Armenian Christians
Approximately 6 million Jews, and 5 million others killed
Germans persecuting Jews and other "inferiors"
April and May of 1994
Approximately 800,00 killed in a six week timespan
Heritage based Hutus persecuting Tutsis
Genocide in Darfur, Sudan
From 2003 until present
Uncertainty in gauging lives lost: from 200,000 up to 700,000
Sudanese government and militias persecuting Sudanese civilians from this region
The Holodomor (Death by Hunger)
From 1932 to 1934 in the Ukraine
Great uncertainty in gauging cost, probably between 4 to 12 million
Soviet Government persecuting Ukranian citizens
If one counts the "purges" by Stalin's regime, the number could go beyond 20 million
The Nanking Massacre
1937 to 1938
Approximately 300,00 killed
Invading Japanese persecuting Chinese civilians
The Cambodian Genocide
1975 to 1979
Approximately 2 million deaths
Khmer Rouge persecuting ethnic and political "enemies" of the party
The Bosnian Genocide
1995 during the Bosnian War
Approximately 8,000 to 10,000 killed
Serbian military and militia persecuting Bosnian men and boys
The Parsley Massacre
5 days during 1937 in the Dominican Republic
20,000 to 30,000 deaths
Dominican government persecuting Haitians living in the country
China's Great Leap Forward
1958 to 1962 in rural China
Very disputed numbers, some projected as high as a staggering 45 to 70 million
Mao Zedong government using purges, forced famine, and executions
The United States
The Pyramid of Hate
The 8 Stages of Genocide
Acknowledgement of "us" and "them"
Distinctions can be large or small
Bipolar societies at greater risk for genocide
Used to distinguish between groups
Clothing, Accesseries, Stickers
Used to associate group with less than human characteristics
In denying humanity, it becomes easier to treat them as if they do not deserve such respect
Animal or disease terminology: vermin, cockroaches, a plague, etc
Genocide is always a group crime
Structure and systems must be in place to carry out
Can be highly (Nazi's) or loosely (mobs) organized
The distance between groups must be expanded
Organized groups planning to engage in genocide will first go after moderates, often in their own party
Extreme lines are drawn
Target group is either separated or restricted
Groups may be placed in ghettos, have their living areas marked or mapped, or transportation restricted
Final stage before the violence begins
The physical acts of genocide, exterminating the vermin or disease
The very term is usually associated with pests
Victims are killed and the bodies are treated with little respect
During and especially after
Information destroyed, discredited as lies, rationalized as other events
Called a war, a famine, ethnic hostility
Gathering weapons, planning stages
How Can They Be Stopped?
Very difficult to take action
Individual nations reluctant to put their own lives at risk
UN resolutions frequently thwarted by "friends" of the accused nation
Denial can confuse the issue to give "outs" to nations on the fence.
Public Awareness Campaigns and Grassroots Support
Genocide: Term coined in 1943 by Raphael Lemkin
Polish man who had studied previous cases
Lived through persecution and eviction by Nazis
Word comes from the Greek "genos" meaning race or tribe, and the Latin "cide" meaning death
Please visit www.genocidewatch.org
Under the tab "Alerts" view:
countries at risk
what is genocide
Under the tab "Alerts" view news alerts & countries at risk. Scan through the info.