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PSYC 110

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Transcript of PSYC 110

Foundations of Social Psychology
PSYC 110
Fall 2013
Antioch College
Michelle Rivera-Clonch, PhD

Class Flow (10:30 - 11:45)
"A Bit About You"
Re-arrange Ourselves
"Foundations" "Social" "Psychology"
Overview of Quarter
Inclusive Welcome
Closing Ritual
Class Flow 2 (11:30 - 12:20)
"I am ___________________"
Overview of Quarter
Expectations = Norm Setting
Closing Ritual
Power(s) of Circle Formations

Name & where you are from
Major or possible major
What do you hope to learn from this class?
Favorite Cartoon, why?
Anything else we should know right now?
I'd Like to Welcome...
Overview of Our Quarter Together
Closing Ritual
(done in accordance with social custom or normal protocol...slightly different from
which is a formal act or
series of acts prescribed by ritual, protocol,
or convention)
What question(s) do you still have about what we

covered in today's class? What do you want to

learn more about?
PSYC 110 - 11/4/13

Anything else you'd like to share?
**When finished, place in card box**
What is Social Psychology?
What are the main areas of research today?

1. Social Thinking
2. Social Influence
3. Social Relations
Class 4
How Do We Do Social Psychology? Forming and Testing Hypotheses

A testable proposition that describes the relationship that may exist between events
An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events

Research may take place in the
or in a
Two primary research methods are
Correlational Research:
Detecting Natural Associations

Correlational Research:
Study naturally occuring relationships among variables
Allow prediction; DO NOT infer causation
Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Understanding Correlations
Class Flow (10:30 - 11:45)
Electronics Ritual
Lingering ? /Matters
Module 1: Doing Social Psych
Module 1 Learning Experience
Module 2: Did You Know It All Along?
Closing Ritual
Class Flow 2 (11:30 - 12:20)
Module 1 Learning Experience
Module 2 (Did You Know It All Along?)
Closing Ritual
Experimental Research:
Searching for Cause and Effect

Control: Manipulating Variables
Independent and Dependent Variables
Random Assignment
Ethical Concerns
Mundane/Experimental Realism
Informed Consent
Potential Harm
Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Understanding Experiments
Random Assignment
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Two Methods of Doing Research: Correlational and Experimental
Things to Consider in
Social Psychological Research

Theory Hypothesis
Population Sample
Random Assignment Informed Consent
Debriefing Independent Variable
Dependent Variable Placebo Effects
Third Variables Causation
Reliability Validity
Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
"Anything seems commonplace, once explained."
Dr. Watson to Sherlock Holmes
Did You Know It All Along?
Do social psychology’s theories provide new insight into the human condition? Or do they only describe the obvious?
Social Psychology faces two contradictory criticisms:
it is trivial because it documents the obvious
it is dangerous because its findings could be used to manipulate people
The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one’s ability to have foreseen it
The I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon
Hindsight Bias
Write down an estimate of how long it would take you to correctly solve each anagram if you had not been given the solution:

seconds (2 min. 38 sec.)
182 seconds

(3 min. 2 sec.)

224 seconds (3 min. 44 sec.)
173 seconds (2 min. 53 sec.)

How many of you estimated lower than the actual solution times?!!!!
Class 5
Class Flow (10:30 - 11:45)
Electronics Ritual
Lingering ? / Matters
Research Portfolio
Publisher Resources
Module 2
Module 3 Self-Concept: Who Am I?
Class Flow (10:30 - 11:45)
Electronics Ritual
Lingering ?/Matters
Finish Module 3: Self-Concept
Module 3 Learning Experience
Module 4: Self-Serving Bias
"I am" Triads & Large Class Discussion
Closing Ritual
Current News: How many news
stories talk about "Saw the Signs?"
In Class Demonstration

Need Volunteer(s)
Individualism vs. Collectivism
Replicating a Position Effect study to see whether it is reliable or not!

Based on our results, what do you think?
Module 3 (Self-Concept)

There is an interplay between the self and the social world
Self-reference Effect
Spotlight Effect
Illusion of Transparency
Social Surroundings
Social Relationships
Who am I?

Self-Reference Effect
Self-Concept: Who am I?

Self & Culture:
Interdependent Self
How does Self-Knowledge Serve us?
Explains our behavior
Predicts our behavior
Predicts our feelings
Wisdom and Illusions of Self-Analysis
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency to perceive and present oneself favorably
Explaining Positive and Negative Events
We take credit for our success
We do *not* take credit for our failures
Most people see themselves as better than average
Self-Serving Bias shows up everywhere!
Ethics Tolerance
Professional Competence Prenatal Support
Virtues Health
Insight Driving Ability
Freedom from Bias Intelligence
Unrealistic Optimism
Illusory Optimism increases our vulnerability
However, optimism is more influential than pessimism
False Consensus and Uniqueness

False Consensus Effect
Our opinions are held by most other people

False Uniqueness Effect
Our talents and moral behaviors are unusual
Self-esteem= the overall self-evaluation of self-worth
Self-esteem motivation: comparing ourselves with others requires us to notice, assess, and recall their behavior and ours
Self-esteem motivation helps power our self-serving bias. "The head is an extension of the heart."
Self-Serving Bias as Adaptive
Self-Serving bias and its accompanying excuses also help protect people from depression
Non depressed people usually exhibit self-serving bias
Self-serving bias additionally helps buffer stress & anxiety
We associate viewing ourselves as "good" with feeling secure
Self-Serving Bias as Maladaptive
People who blame others for their social difficulties are often unhappier than people who acknowledge their mistakes
We also know this as the tragic flaw portrayed in drama...the Greek work is HUBRIS, or excessive pride.
Tragic figures are not self-consciously evil, they merely think too highly of themselves
Class 7
Class Flow (10:30 - 11:45)
Electronics Ritual
Lingering ?s/Matters
"I am _______" (finally!!)
Module 5: The Power of Positive Thinking
Quiz #1
Closing Ritual
Class Flow 2 (11:30 - 12:20)
Quiz #1
Research Portfolio Discussion
20 Traits
Closing Ritual & Sign Up For 1st office hour meeting
Module 5: The Power of Positive Thinking
Belief in our own competence and effectiveness
Children & adults with strong feelings of self-efficacy...
increased persistence
increased health
increased academic success
decreased anxiety
decreased depression
Locus of Control
The extent to which people perceive outcomes as
controllable by their
efforts or as
controlled by
Individuals who see themselves as INTERNALLY controlled are more likely to:
do well in school
successfully stop smoking
wear seatbelts
deal with relationship problems directly
earn a substantial income
delay instant gratification to achieve long-term goals
(Findley & Cooper, 1983; Lefcourt, 1982; Miller and others, 1986).
Learned Helplessness
The sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events
However, if you develop self-discipline in
one area of your life, it may spill over into
other areas as well!
Studies confirm that systems of governing or managing people that promote personal control will indeed promote health and happiness.

How does this play into your experience of/at Antioch?
Excess Choice
Too many choices can lead to paralysis
Making too many choices is tiring!
Review of "self" Concepts
Overall self-evaluation of self-worth
How competent you feel doing something
Inflated sense of self
Folks with high self-esteem, are more likely to be obnoxious, to interrupt, and to talk AT people rather than WITH them...hmmm...
To focus less on one's self-image, and more on developing one's talents and relationships, eventually leads to greater well-being
self-efficacy does *not* grow primarily by self-persuasion
self-efficacy does *not* grow with false or half-hearted praise
self-efficacy *does* grow from experiences of success
Hindsight Bias
Spotlight effect
Individualism & Collectivism
Interdependent Self
Planning Fallacy
Dual Attitude System
"Self" Concept
Hubris/Self-Serving Bias
False Consensus
False Uniqueness
Illusory Optimism
Learned Helplessness
Locus of Control
Class 5
Flow 1 (10:30 - 11:45)
Electronics Ritual
Lingering ?/Matters
Review Module 6: The Fundamental Attribution Error
Module 7: The Powers and Perils of Intuition
Truth or Lie?! (if time allows)
Closing Ritual
Attribution Theories
The Fundamental Attribution Error

Why do we make this error?
Perspectives and self-awareness
Cultural differences
What would be some reasons for why we should we pay attention to this?
Fundamental Attribution Error
Perspectives Change with Time
Immediately after hearing someone argue an assigned position, people assume that's how the person really felt.
A week later they are much more ready to credit the situational constraints.
The presumption that we're all prone to attribution error
has its critics...

What do you think?
Class Flow 2 (11:30 - 12:20)
In Class Demonstration
Overview of Hosting Conversations (if time allows)
Closing Ritual
“The heart has its reasons which reason does not know”- Blaise Pascal
Thinking is partly conscious
Thinking is also partly unconscious
emotional reactions
implicit memory
Blind sight
Limits of Intuition
Error prone hindsight judgments
Perceptual misinterpretations
Constructed beliefs
Judging Our Social World

Intuitive Judgment
Powers of Intuition
Limits of Intuition
Overconfidence phenomenon
Confirmation Bias
Two techniques have successfully reduced the Overconfidence Bias:
Prompt Feedback
Determining why one's judgments might be wrong
(We see this as a fun movie technique)
Perceiving our Social World

Constructing Memories of Ourselves and Our Worlds
Reconstructing past attitudes
Reconstructing our past behavior
Class 6
Flow (10:30 - 11:45)
Electronics Ritual
Lingering ?/ Matters
Module 9: Behavior and Belief
Module 8: The Reasons for Unreason
Closing Ritual
In Your Dyad

Generate 1 or 2 things we can infer or learn about experimental design when our own research replications in class don’t "work out" as planned.

We'll harvest (report into the larger class) afterward.
In Your Group

Discuss Module 8: The Reasons for Unreason
What are the key points?
What does your group find as the most interesting aspect of the module?
Give an example from your own lives that relates to the module.
Write one "Wicked Question" on the board
Questions to which you do not already know the answer
Questions that make you a little uncomfortable to ask, or produce a visceral response
(not in the alarm zone!)
Flow 2 (11:30 - 12:20)
Discuss Wicked Questions
Harvest in Large Group Discussion
Closing Ritual
Research Portfolio: Avoiding the Planning Fallacy!

Estimate how much time you believe it will take you to complete each component and map out *specific deadlines* to each component

Consider the time it takes to do the research, to do the writing, to prepare a brief presentation....
PSYC 110
How did today’s class go for you in terms of your own learning?
Place cards in the box. Thank you!
Class 7
Overview of Module 9: Behavior & Belief
Key Points: Module 9
Assumption that private beliefs determine public behavior
Attitudes: beliefs and feelings that can influence our reactions
Role playing
Refers to actions expected of those who occupy a particular social position
Behavior is a product of both the individual person and the situation
Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon:
If you want someone to do a
BIG favor for you, get them to do a small favor first.

Attitudes DO influence actions especially when 3 conditions are met:
external influences are minimal
attitude is specific to the behavior
conscious of our attitudes
If all 3 are met, we WILL stand up for what we believe in!
What can we learn from role playing, the foot-in-the-door experience, moral and immoral acts, intergroup behavior, and brainwashing?
If we want to change ourselves in some important way, it's best not to wait for insight or inspiration. Sometimes we need to act--to begin writing that paper, to make those phone calls, to begin that research portfolio--even if we don't feel like acting.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Proposes that we feel tension, or a lack of harmony (dissonance) when two simultaneously accessible thoughts or beliefs (cognitions) are psychologically inconsistent.
In other words, dissonance theory pertains to discrepancy between behavior and attitudes.
Indicate the extent to which you agree with each of the statements below, using the following scale:

1 = strongly disagree
2 = disagree
3 = neither agree or disagree
4 = agree
5 = strongly agree

1. Engaging in regular physical exercise three times a week promotes good health.

2. Eating a variety of foods each day, including five or more servings of fresh fruits and vegetables, contributes to wellness.

3. It is essential that all citizens exercise their right to vote if government is to effectively reflect the will of the people.

4. Homelessness is a serious social problem that needs attention.
Please indicate whether or not you have performed each of the following actions:

Yes No 1. I take time to engage in regular physical exercise at least three times a week.

Yes No 2. I regularly eat at least five servings of fresh fruits and vegetables each day.

Yes No 3. I voted in the last election for which I was eligible (campus counts too!)

Yes No 4. Within the last year, I have personally done something to address the problem of homelessness (e.g. volunteered at a soup kitchen, talked with a homeless person, wrote my congressperson regarding the problem of homelessness).
Final Key Point for Module 9

As often happens in science, each theory provides a partial explanation of a complex reality!
Key Points: Module 10 Clinical Intuition
Illusory Correlations
Hindsight Bias (i.e. suicide)
Self-Confirming Diagnoses
Availability Heuristic
Confirmation Bias
Avoid asking questions that only serve your preconceptions. Test opposing ideas too.
In Your Triad

Discuss Modules 9 & 10:
What are the key points?
What does your group find as the most interesting aspect of the module?
Give an example for your own lives that relates to the module.
Write one "Wicked Question" on the board
Questions to which you do not already know the answer
Questions that make you a little uncomfortable to ask
(not in the alarm zone!)
Flow 2 (11:30 - 12:20)
Small Groups to create Wicked Questions for Modules 9 & 10
Seminar approach to discuss Modules 9 & 10
Closing Ritual
PSYC 110
Share a sentence or two about how today's class went for you in terms of learning.
Write Legibly!! **When finished, place in card box**
Class 8
Flow 1 (10:30 - 11:20)
Cell Phone Ritual
Index Cards / Lingering Questions
Key Points of Module 11: Clinical Therapy: The Powers of Social Cognition
What to Expect *for* the Mid-Term Exam
Key Points for Module 11
Clinical Therapy: The Powers of Social Cognition
Social Cognition and DEPRESSION
44% of collegians report depression during the past school year! (Counseling centers are busy!)
Depressed mood negative thinking self-defeat
Depressive Realism
People with depression are quite accurate in estimating their degree of control
People with mild depression are also more attuned to others' feelings, despite self-preoccupation
Explanatory Style in DEPRESSION
Failures and setbacks are:
Stable (i.e. duration, "going to last forever")
Global (i.e. breadth, "going to affect *everything*")
Internal (i.e. LOC, "it's all my fault")
Depressed Moods Cause Negative Thinking
Moods can modify our memories
Moods are contagious

Negative Thinking Causes Depressed Moods
"A recipe for severe depression is preexisting pessimism encountering failures"
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy?
Depression is *both* a cause and a result of negative cognitions
Social Cognition and LONELINESS
Chronic or acute
pain-full awareness that our social relationships are less numerous or meaningful than we desire
(In other words: Depression, Loneliness, and Anxiety...how fun!)
Chronically lonely folks are caught in the cycle of self-defeating social thinking and social behaviors :(
Social Cognition and SHYNESS

Shyness: form of social anxiety characterized by self-consciousness and worry about what others think

Doubting our ability in social situations
Overpersonalize situations (events, circumstances are always relevant or related to the person who feels lonely)
Social-Psychological Approaches to Treatment
Inducing internal change through external behavior
Interrupting Vicious Cycles
Social Skills Training
Explanatory Style Therapy
Maintaining change through attributions for success
What to expect for the mid-term exam...

Study Guide: http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/0078035171/information_center_view0/
Flow 2 (11:30 - 12:20)
In Class Activity
Closing Ritual
Have students be actively responsible for contributing to *our* learning community
Continue to develop facilitation skills with small groups
Continue to develop empathy for one another and have compassion for what each student brings to our community...and their particular role at any given time (leadership, committees, etc.)
Sample Flows under Seminar Approach

Flow 1 (10:30 – 12:20)
•Cell Phone/Electronics Ritual
•Index Cards/Lingering Questions and/or In Class Demonstration (20 minutes)
•Module A Expert Facilitators (30 minutes)

Flow 2 (11:30 – 12:20)
•Module B Expert Facilitators (30 minutes)
•Review of Key Points of Both Modules (15 minutes)
•Closing Ritual (5 minutes)
Class 9
Flow 1 (10:30 - 11:20)
Turn in Journals
Cell Phone Ritual
Index Cards, Lingering Questions
In Class Group Experience
Flow 2 (11:30 - 12:20)
In Class Demonstration
Brief Overview of Module 12
In Class Demonstration
Brief Overview of Module 13
Closing Ritual
Module 12: Human Nature and Cultural Diversity
Evolution and Behavior
Culture and Behavior
Cultural Diversity
Cultural Similarity
Key Points

The hallmark of our species is our capacity to learn and adapt
Genes are not fixed blueprints--their expression depends on the environment and HOW these two interact
Cultural Diversity: Key Points

Norms = Social Expectations
Norms do restrain and control us--so successfully and so subtly that we hardly sense their existence
Social behavior occurs smoothly when people know what to expect
In unfamiliar situations, when norms unclear, we monitor others' behaviors and adjust our own accordingly
Cultural Similarity: Key Points

Universal Friendship Norms
Universal Status Norms
forms of address communicate not only social distance but also social social status
advances in intimacy are usually suggested by the higher-status person
Incest Taboo
Norms of War
Module 13: Gender, Genes, and Culture

Gender Differences
Social Dominance
Evolution and Gender: Doing What Comes Naturally?
Reflections on Evolutionary Psychology
Culture and Gender
Gender Differences

Independence versus Connectedness
women more than men give priority to close, intimate relationships
men tend to focus on tasks and on connections with large groups
Shows up in play, friendships, vocations, family relationships, and empathy

"Being able to feel what another feels"

Women tend to express empathy more often
One explanation for this: women tend to outperform men at reading others' emotions
Social Dominance
Leadership Styles
Stock Market
Writing Style
Communication Style
Aggression (different than *assertiveness*)

Often times, gender attributes are conflated...other social constructions such as class, power, and status are equally important to consider.
Gender and Mating Preferences
both women and men desire kindness, love, and mutual attraction
Culture & Gender

Culture = what's shared by a large group and transmitted across generations (ideas, attitudes, behaviors, and traditions)

Gender Roles = behavior expectations for males and females

The variety of gender roles across cultures and over time
shows that culture indeed helps construct our gender roles
Culture & Gender

Behavioral changes accompany attitude shifts
Genes are not set in stone; they respond adaptively to our experiences
PSYC 110
Up to this mid-point in the class, which concept has been most intriguing or most valuable to you?
Please write legibly! **Place in box when finished**
Let's get to know "a bit" about one another...
Class Flow 1 (10:30 - 11:20)
Electronics Ritual
Lingering ?s/Lingering Matters
Demonstration: Truth or Lie?!
Module 7: The Powers & Perils of Intuition
Class Flow 2 (11:30 - 12:20)
(Taste of) Hosting Conversations
Avoiding the Planning Fallacy Workshop
Closing Ritual
Flow 2 (11:30-12:20)
Demonstration 9-1
Quiz #2
Closing Ritual
Class Flow 1 (10:30 - 11:20 ish)
Electronics Ritual
Lingering ?s, Lingering Matters
Bring 1 Question with you for our guest speaker on Thursday
Quiz #2 Results--Record in syllabus
Module Facilitation Assignments

Class Flow 2 (11:30 - 12:20 pm)
Module 14: How Nice People (just like us!) Get Corrupted
Count off in 5s
Describe key points of Module 14
What did you find most interesting about this module?
Give an example from your own life that relates to the module
Craft 1 wicked question and write it up on the board
Small group discussion
Harvest in large group discussion
Demonstration 15-1 & Closing Ritual

Class Flow 1 (10:30 - 11:20)
Electronics Ritual
Lingering ?s, Lingering Matters
A warm welcome to Dr. Stephen Jones!

Class Flow 2 (11:30 - 12:20)
Overview of Module 15: Two Routes to Persuasion
Return Demonstration 15-1
Small group discussion
Harvest in large group discussion
Closing Ritual
What paths lead to Persuasion:
Central Route
Peripheral Route
Different Routes for Different Purposes
The Elements of Persuasion
The Communicator
The Message Content
Reason versus affect
Good feelings
The Elements of Persuasion Con't
The audience
How old are they? (Other demographics)
What are they thinking?
Module 1 Learning Experience
Module 3 Learning Experience :)
Time for "I am _________" Triads!
Module 7: The Powers & Perils of Intuition
Flow (10:30 - 11:45)
Electronics Ritual
Lingering ?/Matters
Watch Asch and Milgram Videos (Key Points)
Module 14: How Nice People [just like us!] Get Corrupted
Count off in 4s
What did you find most interesting about this module?
Give an example from your own life that relates to the module
Discuss Wicked Questions
Harvest in large group discussion
Demonstration 15-1 & Closing Ritual
Full transcript