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US History - 28.1 - 28.2 - 28.3 - The New Frontier and the Great Society
Transcript of US History - 28.1 - 28.2 - 28.3 - The New Frontier and the Great Society
and the Cold War
The Kennedy Administration faced some of the most dangerous Soviet confrontation in American history
- 1960: Ike’s second term drew close to ending.
- The economy was in a recession.
- The USSR launched Sputnik in 1957 and its development of long-range missiles had sparked fears that the American military was falling behind that of the Soviets.
The Televised Debate Affects Votes
Americans fear U.S. falling behind Soviets militarily
John F. Kennedy discusses Catholicism openly, allays public worries
First televised presidential debate between Kennedy, Richard Nixon
Nixon is foreign policy expert
Kennedy coached by TV producers, comes across better than Nixon
The Election of 1960
When MLK was arrested for sitting at a segregated lunch counter and charged with months of hard labor (officially for a minor traffic violation) the Eisenhower administration refused to intervene and Nixon took no public position.
JFK called MLK’s wife, Coretta Scott King, to express his sympathy while Robert Kennedy persuaded the judge who sentenced King to release him on bail, pending an appeal.
JFK and MLK
The Kennedy Mystique
Kennedy wins presidency in close election
Critics argue his smooth style lacks substance
Kennedy White House known as Camelot for its glamour, culture, wit
First Lady admired for her elegance; constant articles about family
The Camelot Years
The Best and the Brightest
JFK’s advisers called “the best and the brightest”
Brother Robert Kennedy named attorney general
Defining a Military Strategy
JFK believes must redefine nation’s nuclear strategy
Flexible response—fight conventional wars, keep nuclear arms balanced
JFK increases defense spending in three areas:
strengthens conventional forces
creates army Special Forces (Green Berets)
triples nuclear capabilities
A New Military Policy
The Cuban Dilemma
Revolutionary leader Fidel Castro declares himself communist
seizes U.S. properties; Eisenhower cuts off diplomatic relations
10% of Cuban population goes into exile; mostly to U.S.
Crisis over Cuba
The Bay of Pigs
Cuban exiles, CIA plan invasion to topple Castro
Plans go wrong; exile forces killed, taken prisoner
JFK pays ransom in food, medicine; mission is public embarrassment
The Bay of Pigs
The Cuban Missile Crisis
Nikita Khrushchev promised to defend Cuba with Soviet arms.
Summer 1962: the flow of Soviet weapons, including nuclear missiles, to Cuba increased greatly.
JFK sent a warning that America would not tolerate offensive nuclear weapons in Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis
For the next 6 days, the world faced the terrifying possibility of nuclear war.
In the Atlantic Ocean, Soviet ships carry more missiles headed toward Cuba, while the US navy prepared to quarantine Cuba & prevent the ships from coming with in 500 miles of it.
In Florida, 100,000 troops waited- the largest invasion force ever assembled in the US.
Soviet ships stopped suddenly to avoid a confrontation at sea.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Khrushchev offered to remove the missiles in return for an American pledge not to invade Cuba.
Secretly, the US also agreed to remove missiles from Turkey.
It was learned in the 1990’s that the CIA had underestimated the number of Soviet troops & nuclear weapons on the island.
Castro closed Cuba’s door to the exiles in November 1962 by banning all flights to and from Miami.
The Berlin Crisis
By 1961 20% of Germans flee to West Berlin; economic drain on East
Khrushchev wants to close access roads to West Berlin; JFK refuses
Soviets isolate West Berlin from East Germany with Berlin Wall
Crisis over Berlin
Searching for Ways to Ease Tensions
Khrushchev, Kennedy conscious of danger of quick decisions
Establish hot line—direct phone between White House, Kremlin
Limited Test Ban Treaty bans nuclear tests in atmosphere
White House - Kremlin Agreements
Photos taken in October by American planes revealed Soviet missile bases in Cuba, with some that contained missiles ready to launch. They could reach the US in minutes.
JFK informed the nation of the existence of the Soviet missile sites & his plan to remove them.
He made it clear that a missile attack from Cuba would trigger an all-out attack on the Soviet Union
Section II - The New Frontier
While Kennedy has trouble getting his ideas for a New Frontier passed, several goals are achieved.
Kennedy’s Vision of Progress
New Frontier—policies of the Kennedy administration
JFK faces Republican-Southern Democrat coalition
Lacks skill to get policies passed
Also lacks mandate—clear voter support for his agenda
The Promise of Progress
Stimulating the Economy
By 1960, U.S. in recession; 6% unemployment
JFK administration pushes for deficit spending to stimulate growth
Gets 20% increase for defense; money for unemployment problems
Race to the Moon
April 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin is first man in space
Kennedy set the goal of landing on the moon before the end of the 1960s
Soon after, U.S. puts man in space, uses satellite communications
July 1969 U.S astronaut Neil Armstrong is first man to walk on moon
University science programs grow; new industries, technologies arise
Race to the Moon
Addressing Domestic Problems
Michael Harrington’s The Other America brings attention to poverty
1963, JFK begins to work on poverty, racial injustice, civil rights
Four Days in November
November 22, 1963, JFK shot, killed riding in motorcade in Dallas
Jack Ruby shoots alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald
Vice president Lyndon Johnson succeeds JFK
Tragedy in Dallas
A national assault on poverty
An investigation on racial injustice in the South
A national civil rights bill
A tax cut
Section III - The Great Society
The demand for reform helps create a new awareness of social problems, especially on matters of civil rights and the effects of poverty.
From the Texas Hills to Capitol Hill
As Congressman, Lyndon Baines Johnson mentored, helped by FDR
1948, LBJ narrowly wins Senate seat
LBJ's Path to Power
A Master Politician
1955, LBJ becomes Senate majority leader
“LBJ treatment”—ability to persuade senators to support his bills
Gets Civil Rights Act of 1957 passed—voting rights measure
LBJ helps Kennedy win key Southern states in presidential election
The War on Poverty
1964 tax cut spurs economic growth; lowers federal deficit
1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination, allows enforcement
LBJ declares “war on poverty”
Economic Opportunity Act: education, training, small business loans
Includes Job Corps, VISTA, Head Start, Community Action Program
Johnson's Domestic Agenda
The 1964 Election
Republicans nominate Senator Barry Goldwater
Goldwater: government should not deal with social, economic problems
Threatens to bomb North Vietnam, advocates intervention
LBJ says will not send troops to Vietnam; wins by landslide
Democrats big majority; Southern Democrats not needed to pass bills
The Great Society
Great Society—LBJ’s legislation to end poverty, discrimination
Johnson gets Congress to pass 206 of his bills
Building the Great Society
Legislation shifts political power from rural to urban areas
Money set aside for public housing; low-, moderate-income homes
Dept. of Housing and Urban Development created
Robert Weaver is first African American in cabinet, HUD secretary
Existing immigration quotas discriminate against non-Western Europeans
Immigration Act of 1965 ends quotas based on nationality
Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring exposes dangers of pesticides
Water Quality Act of 1965 requires states to clean up rivers
LBJ orders government to search out worst chemical polluters
Laws set standards for consumer labels, auto safety, food safety
The Warren Court
Warren Court—Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren
Rejects loyalty oaths, affirms free speech, church-state separation
Reforms of the Warren Court
Brown v. Board of Education
Ruled that school segregation is unconstitutional
Baker v. Carr
Established the principle of “one person, one vote”; asserted that federal courts had the right to tell states to reapportion districts for more equal representation
Mapp v. Ohio
Ruled that evidence seized illegally could not be used in state courts--the “exclusionary rule”
Monumental Cases (cont)
Gideon v. Wainwright
Required criminal courts to provide legal counsel to those who could not afford it
Escobedo v. Illinois
Ruled that an accused person has the right to have a lawyer present during questioning
Miranda v. Arizona
Ruled that all suspects must be “read their rights” before questioning established the Miranda rights
Rights of the Accused
Warren Court rulings expand rights of people accused of crimes:
illegally seized evidence cannot be used in court
courts must provide legal counsel to poor
suspect must be read rights before questioning
Some praise protection of right to a fair trial
Others think rulings handicap police investigations
Addressing Poverty Abroad
Peace Corps—volunteers assist developing nations; great success
Alliance for Progress—economic, technical assistance to Latin America
in part meant to deter spread of communism in Latin America
Medical care for the elderly
Rebuilding of blighted areas
Federal aid for education
Warren Commission investigates, concludes Oswald acted alone
1979 reinvestigation concludes Oswald part of conspiracy
Elementary and Secondary Education Act funds school materials
Medicare—low-cost medical, hospital insurance for senior citizens
Medicaid—health insurance for welfare recipients
Reapportionment—way states redraw election districts by population
Court rules districts must have approximately equal population
Leads to shift in political power from rural to urban areas
Social and Economic Effects
Post-WW II, LBJ extends federal power more than all other presidents
Poverty drops from 21% of population in 1962 to 11% in 1973
Massive tax cut spurs economy; Great Society contributes to deficit
Debate over finances, effectiveness of programs, government role
Impact of the Great Society