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Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution in Europe
Transcript of Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution in Europe
Key part of Renaissance
Study of humanities
Focused on grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy
Important Renaissance Works
Key Figures/Rulers During the Renaissance
King Edward III of England- Claimed French throne in 1337 which led to the Hundred Years War
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella- Expelled Jews and Muslims in Spain and unified the country
King John of England- Signed Magna Carta in 1215 limiting power of monarchs
Works of Art from the Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci's
By: Patric Pelli and Joseph Shin
A time of intense cultural, artistic, and intellectual change in Europe
A "rebirth" of Greco-Roman culture and art
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Economy During the Renaissance
Port cities dominated trade and became known as trading cities
Wealthy families, such as the Medicis and the Fuggers operated banks in Italy and controlled trade
This map shows important trading cities in Italy during the Renaissance
Guilds emerged during the Renaissance, which brought together people that worked in the same trade
The Hanseatic League was formed, and it was an alliance between trading cities in Europe that promoted trade
Map showing cities that participated in the Hanseatic League
The Dominicians and the Franciscans were two new religious orders
Scholasticism was created to combine Aristotelian philosophy with Catholic theology. Thomas Aquinas is often associated with this system.
Improved crossbows with metal-tipped arrows
Firearms with gunpowder
Martin Luther started Protestant movement in response to corruptions in the Catholic Church
Sects formed from Protestantism like Calvinism
15th Century Printing Press
Soldiers using 15th century firearms
In response to Protestant opposition, Catholic Church began own reformation
Made clear of Catholic theology and training of clergy
Jesuits created to lead Inquisition
Florence, where Humanism began
Used elements from Greek and Roman architecture, such as columns and arches
St. Peter's Basilica
Different types of columns
Intellectual movement in Europe led by intellectuals who wanted to challenge the status quo
Focused on planetary motion and physics
Important Contributors of Scientific Revolution
Nicholas Copernicus- Believed the sun was the center of the universe
Galileo- Used telescope to observe planets and the sun. Showed that planets weren't perfect spheres which was widely believed to be true
Brahe and Kepler- Proved that planets move in elliptical orbits
Opposition to Scientific Revolution
Religious institutions were against the Scientific Revolution because it challenged the established ways of thought
Protestants condemned the new ideas as contrary to the Bible
The Catholic Church was slow to judge, because Copernicus and Galileo were Catholic, but the church was still against the new ideas
Many thinkers questioned the ideas and practices that were already in place in Europe
An examination of human society
Causes of the Enlightenment
Warfare and disputes between Catholicism and Protestantism
Efforts of the church to ignore new ideas of the Scientific Revolution
An example of a witch hunt, which thinkers of the Enlightenment were against
Torture during the Inquisition
Isaac Newton created laws of physics
Both Protestants and Catholics engage in widespread witch hunts
Church of England
Henry the 8th creates Anglican Church to get divorce
Tetzel sells indulgences for future sins
Henry the 8th
Man can be saved through faith alone
Luther nailing his theses onto church doors
As Protestantism became more popular, the Bible did too
Religious faction that sought to purify church of Catholicism
Good works help entry into Heaven
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