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School Choice

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Mercedes Scarlett

on 14 April 2013

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Transcript of School Choice

1989 Wisconsin passed first modern school voucher program targeting low income households. School Choice PUBLIC PRIVATE Home School Private Schools Vouchers Types of Private Schools Public schools receive their funding from local, state and federal government. Most of their funding comes from property taxes and lotteries. To be enrolled in a public school you must be zoned for the school, however parents sometimes have the option of VPSC or controlled open enrollment. Public schools include a basic education from K-12 and college. The education is all inclusive with compulsory attendance. All teachers and curricula are certified by the government or a teacher organization. Testing and standards are set by the government. Voluntary Public School Choice This program supports efforts to establish or expand intra-district, inter-district, and open enrollment public school choice programs to provide parents, particularly parents whose children attend low-performing public schools, with expanded education options. Pros
Diversity in the classroom
Free of cost
Certified teacher guaranteed
Accountable to the state Cons
Oversized classrooms
Funding issues
Emphasis on testing
Little to no individualized instruction
May be stifling to advanced learners
Unsure environment Magnet Schools Magnet schools are high selective and competitive public schools. They have a particular theme or academic focus, such as math, science, business, etc. They provide parents and students with the option of choosing a school that matches a student's interests. Magnet schools offer specialized programs and create innovative learning approaches in a diverse environment. School districts may make student school assignments using parents’ indicated preferential school choice as a significant factor. Controlled open enrollment emphasizes the rights of families to choose among existing public schools. Instead of being assigned to a public school by a district, students may choose a school from anywhere within the district or, if not geographically feasible, from within established zones or boundaries within the district. School districts that establish controlled open enrollment zones allow families to choose a public school within their zone as long as it maintains an ethnic and racial balance at that school. These new zones override preexisting neighborhood school assignments and give parents the choice of schools within their designated zone. Controlled Open Enrollment Getting Into A Magnet School: Some magnet schools have a competitive entrance process that requires some sort of an assessment - i.e. an entrance exam, interview, audition. Certain criteria are used to weigh admission. Sometimes students are chosen by lottery or a combination of a lottery and an assessment. Still, some magnet schools accept all students that apply. Sometimes they grant enrollment on a first come first serve basis. A percentage of the student body is set aside for neighborhood families that live in the zoned area. Cons Pros Specialized and focused instruction
Smaller class sizes
More individualized attention
More rigorous and creative curriculum
Additional electives
Neighboring schools benefit from magnet school programs by increasing the reputation of the area Might limit students with a focused education
Facilities may be inconvenient for some families to attend
Magnet schools take the smarter students from other schools
The selective admission makes it nearly impossible for students with bad grades or history of behavioral problems to get in
English as a second language and special education students under represented Cons There are magnet schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels
Some magnet schools are established by school district and draw their students from those district areas
Some are established by state government and draw their students from multiple districts
They are part of the public school system
They use alternative modes of instruction
Receive additional funding
Attract gifted students who score well
Tuition-free schools
Distinctive curriculum or instructional approach
Diversity is the main focus of these schools
Students are not automatically zoned for these schools
Mainly an urban phenomenon Regardless of race, students are less likely to have the same social economic status then that of regular public schools. There are not as many free or reduced lunch recipient’s and the students are more likely to live in a two parent home with employed parents who have college degrees. These schools typically spend $200 more per student Virtual Schools Virtual schools are internet based programs that take place in an interactive learning environment created through technology. This fairly new form of education is gaining momentum and becoming a popular alternative to traditional school. One of the most renowned virtual school is FLVS, the Florida Virtual School, which was founded by Julie Young and 1997. FLVS is free for Florida residents and provides learning programs the remaining 49 states, and more than 65 countries. Getting Into A Virtual School: Pros Cons To get into a virtual school is as simple as creating an online account. There is a brief process time of about two weeks. Customized learning pace
One-on-one as well as group instruction
Chance to get ahead in coursework
No transportation conflicts
Greater access to better learning for all
Limitless course options Quality not guaranteed
No classroom experience
no exposure to diversity
New and fairly unexplored format Charter Schools Getting In Pros Cons Charter schools are alternative public schools started by parents, teachers, community organizations and/or for-profit companies. They receive state funding but the sponsoring group must come up with private funding. They must adhere to basic curriculum requirements but are free from regulations of conventional schools. Charter schools may specialize in a particular area of interest like technology or the arts. They may also be geared toward gifted or high risk kids. The goal of charter schools is to promote high achievement, cultural diversity, and a choice of curriculum. Each charter school has its own application process. However, charter schools are free and open to all students regardless of their academic skills or needs. They must take students on a first-com first-serve basis. When more students apply than there are seats available admissions are determined by a blind lottery and open to all students. As a result of this process, many applicants are turned away. Free from many of the regulations of traditional public schools
No charge or tuition fees
All inclusive
Class sizes and smaller student to teacher ratios
Innovative system allows for unique way of educating Charter schools don't necessarily produce better academic results than traditional public schools
They can be closed by the entities that granted the school its charter
Admission is not guaranteed Created to meet high standards of student achievement while increasing parental choice
Teachers must be certified
Students must take state standard tests and meet state graduation requirements
Overseen by a governing board and must be organized as, or operated by, a nonprofit organization
Charter schools must be nonsectarian
Administrators are not required to be certified Home school is defined as the sequentially progressive instruction of a student directed by his or her parent or guardian in order to satisfy Florida's compulsory education requirement. Getting In Pros Parents must establish a home education program. To do so a notice of intent must be sent to the school district superintendent within 30 days of beginning the program. Individualized instruction
Customized pace and education
Environmental security
More freedom of curriculum
Not held back by regulations and red tape No peer to peer interaction
No connection with mentors
No exposure to diversity
Quality of instruction not guaranteed
Potential financial stress Florida's Home Education Program law was created in 1985
Requirements are to be met by the parent such as maintaining a portfolio for each student and completing evaluations
Home education students are eligible for Bright Futures and other scholarships
Parents are not required to have a teaching certificate
Home education students are allowed the same opportunities as traditional public school students Private schools are funded and managed independently. Most types can be categorized by the source of the school's funding. Private schools can be broken into three different groups based on their funding. Proprietary schools are private schools that turn a profit. Parochial schools are schools that are funded by the church or a religious group. Then there are independent or nonprofit schools that usually answer to a board of directors or some other private overseeing body. Vouchers are also known as Opportunity Scholarships. They are state funded scholarships that pay for students to attend private rather than public schools. These scholarships are able to help low-income students that meet a specific income threshold, students with disabilities, students in military families or students in foster care. Types of Vouchers 1999 Florida established the OSP which was originally implemented to offer students who attended or who were assigned to attend failing public schools the option to choose a higher performing public school or participating private school 2001 Florida enacted John M. McKay scholarship program for students with disabilities. This was the first state to offer private school vouchers 2006 The Florida Supreme Court issued a ruling declaring the private school option of the OSP unconstitutional, Students assigned to failing schools are no longer offered the opportunity to transfer and enroll in a participating private school. There are twelve states, plus Washington D.C., that have school voucher programs Out of the states with voucher programs, eight of them have vouchers available to special needs students Four of the twelve states, plus Washington D.C., offer vouchers to low-income or failing schools Two of the twelve states offer vouchers to certain rural students Means-tested Voucher Failing School Voucher Special Needs Scholarship Scholarship and Tax Credit Programs Targeted to low-income families who meet specific criteria Targeted to low preforming public schools Targeted to students with special needs Provides state tax credit to businesses and individuals that donate money to scholarship funds that help children attend the private schools of their parents' choice. These programs are run by non-profit, tax-exempt, scholarship granting organizations Cons Pros Getting In Admissions begin about a year in advanced. The application process may include essays, interviews or observation sessions, auditions or other forms of assessment. Higher college acceptance rates
Smaller more intimate classes
Alternative teaching styles
Focused courses
Challenging curriculum Can be expensive
More narrow philosophy within curriculum
Less choices in subjects
Teachers are not required to hold a a degree Montessori Religious Boarding Military Special Needs Country Day Waldorf Country Day schools seek to recreate the educational rigor, atmosphere, camaraderie and character-building aspects of the best college prep boarding schools while allowing students to return to their families at the end of the day. In order to avoid the crime, pollution and health problems of the industrial cities of the early 20th century,when they were first brought into practice the schools were sited in the 'country,' where wealthy families owned large homes in what would later be known as suburbs. A boarding school is a residential private school. Students live in dormitories or resident halls on the school's campus. Boarding school students follow a highly structured day in which classes, meals, athletics, study times, activities, and free time are predetermined for them. Religious schools are referred to as parochial schools. Parochial schools are schools that provide religious education in addition to conventional education. There are schools that cover almost every sect known. Special needs schools cover a wide range of learning disabilities including ADD/ADHD, dyslexia and other learning syndromes. They have the specially trained and certificated staff necessary to teach children with learning disabilities. A military school is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps of the army, navy, air force, or coast guard. These schools provide education in a service environment. Three levels of service academy exist: high school institutions that award academic qualifications, university institutions that award bachelor's degree qualifications and those preparing officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services. A Montessori school is a school which follows the teachings of Dr. Maria Montessori. Montessori schools theoretically cover infant education through matriculation from high school. The centerpiece of the Montessori approach is allowing children to learn on their own while being guided by the teacher. Montessori teachers do not correct work and hand it back with lots of red marks. A child's work is not graded. The teacher assesses what the child has learned and then guides him into new areas of discovery. A Waldorf school follows the teachings and educational philosophy of Rudolf Steiner. Steiner developed a philosophy known as anthroposophy; that in order to understand the workings of the universe, people must first have an understanding of humanity. Waldorf schools cover infant education through matriculation from high school. The emphasis in the primary grades is on artistic expression. As the child matures, the process of scientific inquiry and discovery becomes the focus in upper school studies. A Waldorf teacher moves with her students through the primary grades creating a sense of stability and security. http://www.floridaschoolchoice.org/
http://www.floridaschoolchoice.org/Information/vpsc/
http://www.fldoe.org/Schools/virtual-schools/pdf/veof.pdf
http://www2.ed.gov/programs/choice/index.html
http://www.knowyourchoices.org/?page_id=178
http://www.myfloridahouse.gov/FileStores/Web/HouseContent/Approved/Web%20Site/education_fact_sheets/2011/documents/2010-11%20Controlled%20Open%20Enrollment.3.pdf
http://people.howstuffworks.com/private-schools8.htm
http://privateschool.about.com/od/profiles/a/typesofschools.htm
http://privateschool.about.com/od/privateschoolfaqs/f/montessori.htm
http://privateschool.about.com/od/waldorfschools/f/waldorf.htm
http://www.educationbug.org/a/private-schools-pros-and-cons.html
http://sitemaker.umich.edu/dickersonhouilles.356/advantages_and_disadvantages
http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_What_private_schools/
http://www.sonlight.com/before-you-start-homeschooling.html
References
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