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Transcript of Hydraulic Systems
-A system is an assemblage or combination of things or parts that form a complex or unitary whole.
-That means a hydraulic system is a combination of things or parts operated by, moved by, or employing water or other liquids in motion. Hydraulics
Systems History of Hydraulics The history of hydraulics is older than recorded history. Prehistoric canals and dams have been found in Egypt and Mesopotamia. One of the basic principles of hydraulic science, the principle of buoyancy, was discovered in the third century by a Greek scientist named Archimedes. As we learned in science while doing systems we learned about the Archimedes Screw which is an example of a hydraulic system. However, it was not until the 17th century (400 years later) that Blaise Pascal, a french scientist discovered the principle that is the basis for modern science. This principle is now called Pascal's Law or Pascal's Principle. BY: Kush Patel Mantosh Gill Ameer Bacchus Robbie K. Keon Harvey Tyler Tran Deval Rajgor Examples of Hydraulic Systems Vehicle Brakes We use fluids everyday to help us do work. Machines such as escalators, backhoes and front-end loaders use hydraulic rams to do work. Rams are similar to syringes: they are composed of a piston inside a cylinder. The cylinder is connected by pipes to a reservoir of hydraulic fluid. A pump provides the pressure and fluid is directed into the cylinder on either side of the piston. Fire pumps and hoses are hydraulic systems designed to cause fluids to leave the system with great force. Water coming from a fire hydrant is already under some pressure. The pumping unit and nozzle design significantly increase this pressure to project the water a considerable distance away. Pushing a plunger into a sealed container will lead to a smaller volume because the air will get compressed into the container. Gas under pressure in a closed system will lead to a significant decrease in volume. It is the same thing with liquids, but the difference is barely noticeable. Particles in liquids are more close together apart from gas, this property of fluids is used for scuba tanks/other rigid contraptions. More gas particles forced into the containers=more collision between the particles, which forces pressure on the inside walls of the container, which is usually made of metal so that it won't burst. An example of this is a hand pump. Also pushing a plunger up and down will force the air into a smaller volume because of more collisions with air particles between the particles and the cylindrical walls of the toilet.This increase in collision results in an increase in pressure and a rise in temperature while an increase in volume will cause the temperature to drop. If the temperature increases, particles of a fluid move faster and farther apart which leads to fluids expanding and finally, if the temperature of a fluid drops, the volume decreases or contracts. This is generally true for all types of matter. This however is not true for water between the temperature of 0 and 4 degrees Celsius Fluid Power The Value of Valves The circulatory system pumps blood (a fluid) throughout the body (closed hydraulic system) which makes a hydraulic system because blood flows from the heart to the blood vessels and arteries which form a long, convoluted, sealed compartment in the body. The circulatory system has special features that allow it to do its job. Heart (the Pump)- Pushes blood through the arteries and veins Halls of Arteries- Vessels that collect blood and return it to the heart (much slower). The veins of the human body have very thin walls compared to arteries and they are equipped with valves. Valves are devices that control movement of a fluid through a hollow tube or pipe. Valves in veins are like one-way gates that prevent blood from backing/pooling. Some people have valves that do not close completely, so the blood backs up in pools in some veins. These veins become large and swollen and are called varicose veins. The heart also has valves that force blood to move throughout itself in one direction. The heart muscle contracts and relaxes, and there are 4 heart valves that keep the blood flowing in the right direction. Many human built systems also use valves, such as car engines that have an internal combustion engine, which is technically a car valve. It burns fuel in chambers inside the engine, which is how it provides fuel for the car. Effects of External Pressure on Fluids Pressure refers to the force applied to a unit of surface area. Some devices are designed to increase pressure such as thumbtacks. Force applied to the head of a tack transfers to the tiny area of the point to increase pressure in that exact spot. Force concentrated on smaller area equals an increase in pressure. There are other devices which are designed to decrease pressure. Snowboards and snow boots allow people to walk in deep snow because the PRESSURE is exerted over a larger area. Spreading force over a large area decreases pressure and in our case prevents a person from sinking into the snow. Mathematically, you can find pressure by dividing the force applied by the area the force is applying on. It is measured in pascals (Pa) and 1 Pa= 1 newton metre squared. Fluids can exert pressure as well. Earth's atmosphere is 160 km thick and gravity pulls on every single particle of it. Atmospheric pressure aso known as air pressure decreases the higher you ascend because their is less air above you that is pressing down. Air pressure acts in all directions, exactly like water pressure. The difference is water is much more heavier, so it exerts more pressure than air. An example of this is when you are swimming under water. Gravity pulls you down but since you weigh a lot, and we are applying our body force over a larger area we would have a pressure of less than 1 which will cause us to surface from beneath the water. Tyler Sucks Devals Dick Putting the Squeeze on Fluids Air and water tend to flow from one place to another when you try to squeeze them or compress them into a smaller space. Gases can be much more easily compressed into a smaller volume than liquids can. Particles of gases are more farther apart than liquid particles which allows us to force the particles of gas closer together, but since the particles of liquids are much farther apart liquids have less compressibility, while solids have almost no compressibility at all. Systems which are designed to put a squeeze on fluids can be divided into two main groups: pneumatic and hydraulic systems.
Pneumatic Systems use pressurized gases to work
Hydraulic Systems use pressurized water to do their job.
These systems also known as closed systems keep their paticles within them, hence the name closed system. Both Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems consist of many components:
-A pump (sometimes including cylinders and pistons) forces fluids through a system
-Conductors- (tubing, hoses or pipes) which provide a pathway to carry the fluid
-Valves keep the fluid moving in the desired direction at the desired time
-A pressure gauge monitors the pressure within the system .
Each of these systems has its own job to do, and without any of these parts the rest of the system would have an extremely hard time working.