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HIV/AIDS: A Global Problem
Transcript of HIV/AIDS: A Global Problem
"History of HIV & AIDS In Africa." Avert.com. N.p., n.d. Web.
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"The Impact of HIV & AIDS in Africa." Avert.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. bigger than you think H
V mmunodeficiency uman irus A
S Some people don't develop symptoms for ten years. Others, however, have flu-like symptoms in first few weeks (called acute retroviral syndrome, or ARS). If people infected get proper treatment, it is possible to live a long, healthy life. HIV is a disease that leads to AIDS. The virus destroys a defense cell called CD4 helper lymphocyte (T-cells), making it hard for the immune system to fight infections and disease. ANYONE CAN GET HIV. There Are Three Mains Ways to Get HIV Sexual Contact Injecting Drugs cquired mmuno- eficiency yndrome White blood cell covered in AIDS viruses (small white dots) 66% of HIV cases in the world
80% of AIDS deaths
More than half of the hospital beds are filled with people with an HIV related disease
To save space, people are not admitted until later stages, reducing their chances of recovering.
More than half of the beds are occupied by someone with an HIV-related disease.
Healthcare workers are declining. Sub-Saharan Africa HIV ward in Uganda Last stage of HIV If your CD4 cell count falls under 200 mm cubed
or if you get in opportunistic infection Invasive cervical cancer
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Other it's AIDS. People living with HIV/AIDS in 2010: 34 million In Sub-Saharan Africa: 22.9 million AIDS deaths in 2010: 1.8 million In Sub-Saharan Africa: 1.2 million Newly Infected in 2010: 2.7 million In Sub-Saharan Africa: 1.9 million AIDS orphans in Lesotho HIV ward in Uganda Highest Adult (15-49) HIV/AIDS Prevalence 1. Swaziland 26.0% (Life Expectancy: 48.3 years)
2. Botswana 23.4%
3. Lesotho 23.3%
4. South Africa 17.3%
5. Zimbabwe 14.9%
6. Namibia 13.4%
7. Zambia 12.5%
8. Mozambique 11.3%
9. Malawi 10.0%
10. Uganda 7.2% Shortage of beds mean people get admitted in the later stages of HIV. There's less chance of recovering. Global AIDS Adult Prevalence rate: 0.8% Sub-Saharan Africa: 5% Prevalence Rate:
percentage of people tested who were found positive US and District of Columbia For males, the most popular transmission was male-to-male sexual contact (17, 230)
Most females were infected by high-risk sexual transmission (7,591) HOW LONG IT TAKES TO DEVELOP AIDS DEPENDS ON THE INDIVIDUAL Explanation: AIDS is much worse. 1 in 5 people with HIV in the US don't know they have it 60% of youth Don't know they have HIV So they could die early or pass it on to someone else What AIDS has done in AFRICA To Families To Children To the Economy To Education Households with someone sick from AIDS spent less on necessities like clothing, electricity, and food. Kids quit school to work or take care of the sick Agricultural work stops or slows "She then led me to the kitchen and showed me empty buckets of food and said they had nothing to eat that day just like other days." “Our fields are idle because there is nobody to work them. We don't have machinery for farming, we only have manpower - if we are sick, or spend our time looking after family members who are sick, we have no time to spend working in the fields." -Toby Solomon, commissioner for the Nsanje district, Malawi Male deaths: less production of cash crops
Female deaths: less production of grain A Person Sick With AIDS = less income
= less people working
= expensive medical fees
= family is more into poverty that could cost 7 times a South African's that could cost 7 times a South African family's monthly income “Because I’m a poor African woman, I can’t raise enough money for three orphans. The one in secondary school, sometimes she misses first term because I’m looking for tuition. The others miss schools for two or three days at a time. I had a cow I used to milk, but as time went on the cow died, so I can’t find any other income…” Barbara, Uganda RESPONSIBILTY earn income
care for sick 2010 2.3 million kids living with HIV
14.8 million orphans in Sub-Saharan Africa due to AIDS
Every hour, 30 kids around the world die of AIDS 90% were infected by mother-to-child transmission xxxxxxxxxx 15-30% of babies get HIV during pregnancy when the mother didn't take treatment. The number is much lower in high-income countries. Orphans Most are living with one parent or extended family or by themselves
Half are 10-14 years 16% of kids in Zimbabwe “The silence that surrounds children affected by HIV/AIDS and the inaction that results is morally reprehensible and unacceptable. If this situation is not addressed, and not addressed now with increased urgency, millions of children will continue to die, and tens of millions more will be further marginalised, stigmatised, malnourished, uneducated, and psychologically damaged.”
-Carol Bellamy, former Executive Director of UNICEF “My sister is six years old. There are no grown-ups living with us. I need a bathroom tap and clothes and shoes. And water also, inside the house. But especially, somebody to tuck me and my sister in at night-time.”
-Apiwe aged 13 School enrollment decreases as the AIDS epidemic worsens Children leave school to care for sick
or because they are sick themselves
or because their families can't afford it A scientist in Franceville, Gabon collects samples from a cooperating monkey Grain Working African kids CD4 cells A school in Illinge,
South Africa with many students who have been affected by HIV/AIDS. Studies suggest young people with little education have 2x a better chance of getting HIV than the ones who finished primary education Grandmother taking care of AIDS orphans AIDS orphans in South Africa 21% of teachers
aged 25-34 in South Africa
had HIV Teachers affected by HIV or AIDS May take time off of work, and the class could be combined with another class or be left without a teacher. If they die, replacing a skilled teacher is not easy. Tanzania, 2006 45,000 teachers needed to be replaced because of HIV/AIDS effects, most of which were 41-50 years old, the most experienced age group. African teacher In rural areas, there may be only one or two teachers to depend on. In rural areas, there may be only one or two teachers to depend on. "Without education, AIDS will continue its rampant spread. With AIDS out of control, education will be out of reach."
-Peter Piot, Director of UNAIDS Most people with HIV in Africa are the most productive workers. Less experienced workers replace them. Ill or dead workers can't work Labor supply (amount of workers available) and productivity is reduced HIV/A DS if the needle is contaminated with HIV Young women may turn to prostitution. People must get tested.
The sooner you are aware of infection, the more likely antiretroviral treatment will work. HIV virus comes out of a T-lymphocyte
white blood cell. It will infect other T-lymphocytes. A heroin addict using a clean needle. An AIDS clinic in Lusikisiki, South Africa HIV antibody test
Polymerase Chain Reaction test
Rapid HIV test Rapid oral test Antiretroviral Treatment Pregnancy, Childbirth, or Nursing Without treatment, they mother has a 25% chance of giving her child HIV. With treatment, it could be 2%. Combination of drugs that slow progression of HIV About half of people who need treatment do not have it.
-don't know they have HIV
-availability Antiretroviral Drugs My initials are J.O and I was born with HIV. For people who were born with it can you remember the first time being told? Not me I feel I was born knowing this. When I was born I was born a very sick child. Lived in an incubator for a week or two and was fed from a tube. I was also adopted and as a child I heard lots of stories about my mother and the family, which I wish I could meet to get more undiscovered answer.
I was told that my mother was a drug addict and while pregnant with me she did these drugs. I was also told that doing drugs was probably the way she got infected and probably infected other including me. I was also told that this is why I was so sick as a baby. My family told me that my biological mother A would call and ask "is she dead yet" and my adopted mother said she would hang up the phone.
Growing up with HIV I didn't understand why me. I also didn't understand why I had to take so much medication at the time. So at on point I stopped taking my medication. I would hide it under plants and things of that sort. My Levels were high, very high and if didn't move with my sister in law and brother I would be very very sick or even possibly dead. I struggle with it because I'm 19 and dating would seem very hard for me because I know one day I would have to tell them and it could possibly not go well.
I don't really except it but I have to live with it. If I could tell something to people of any age who has HIV or even AIDS I’d say; ‘living with HIV/AIDS is the easy part you just can't let it consume you as a person, physically mentally because we're in control, not the virus’. It is August 2nd and just yesterday on the 1st I found out that I was HIV positive
I havent been able to sleep, eat, I am extremely weak and scared beyond words.
When the nurse called me into the room and told me my resutls, I almost fainted and started to break down.
This is so hard for me and I dont know what to do. Right now I am just waiting for my 2nd results so I have to wait a week.
I am so scared and dont know how long I have had it. Medicine is going to be extremely expensive and dont know what I am going to do if I cant afford it.
Please pray for me.... I just recently lost my grandma and that was the hardest thing that I have ever been through and now I have this to deal with and just dont know what to do... I am so depressed but I know that I have to pick myself up and not let this get the best of me. My family support and are there for me 100% so thank GOD that is not an issue. WHAT CAUSED THE EPIDEMIC? Blood Industry Drug Injection Travel r Donors were paid to give blood. Some drug users were interested. Blood donations were not screened back then, and patients became positive when they got infected blood. Donating blood Prevention:
Educate people about dangers of AIDS
Educate people about safe sex There is no cure,
but there is treatment Why is it so hard to cure AIDS? -remove HIV's genetic material from infected cells
-remove every SINGLE infected cell from the body
-control HIV by keeping the virus dormant Another thing we need to do is to make medicine cheaper.
We need to train nurses so they know how administer the drugs. using unsterilized needles and syringes People ages 40-49 in the US had the most AIDS cases Grace Zhou, Carolina Vilomar, Malathi Reddy, Matt Odom