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Ch. 10 Renaissance & Discovery

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Luka Zischka

on 28 September 2012

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Transcript of Ch. 10 Renaissance & Discovery

Germany
Reuchlin Controversy
Humanists stand up for scholarship (learning) of Judaism on the grounds of academic freedom
Allows Humanists to critique Catholicism as academic freedom
England
Thomas More
Best-known English humanist
Wrote "Utopia"
Describes a perfect world that includes nor private land, nobody is lazy, & everyone is involved in politics
France
Guillaume Budé, Jacques Lefèvre
Spain
Humanism in service of Catholic Church
Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros
Known as the "Grand Inquisitor"
King Ferdinand & QUeen Isabella gave him the authority to enforce the strictest religious laws throughout Europe
Kept Spain Catholic throughout the Reformation Humanism & Reform Northern Humanists Goals:
Religious Reform (away from the Catholic Church)
Educating the overall population (not just the educated church staff)

Biggest Impact of the Northern Renaissance:
Printing press with movable type
Invented by Johann Gutenberg
Before the Printing Press
Books would be handwritten
Books are very expensive & rare
Education is only for the elite class
After the Printing Press
Adjustable presses could produce any text
Books are cheaper & very popular
Ignites widespread education & literacy

Printing Press becomes a tool to spread ideas very quickly & effectively
Huge factor in the Reformation movement against the Catholic Church The Northern Renaissance Lack of power of feudal monarchies led to the creation of a rise of national monarchies
Rise of towns, alliance of growing business classes with kings
Broke bonds of feudal society
The sovereign state:
The powers of taxation, war making, & law enforcement no longer resided with noble classes (Church & Social Elites)
These now became national rather than regional matters Revival of Monarchy Niccolò Machiavelli
(1469–1527) Embraced natural world & human emotion
Works characterized by rational order, symmetry, proportionality; addition of linear perspective (3-D look) Renaissance Art Humanists
Mastered the ancient languages
Constantly in search for new sources of information
Became innovative educators
Learning was not meant to be unpracticed
Learning went beyond the classroom
Curriculum included:
Good Manners, Civic Duties, Rhetoric (Speech), Physical Exercise, Musical Skills, Artistic Skills, Literature, Mathematics, History, & Architecture Revival of Greek Studies The conquerors wanted to convert the captured native people to Christianity and to accept European culture
Some religious leaders felt the natives were being treated poorly, such as Bartolome de Las Casas
Despite the opposition, the Roman Catholic Church becomes one of the most powerful conservative forces in Latin America The Church in Spanish America Spanish Empire in the New World Wanted Italy to be ruled by Italians
Admirer of Roman rulers & citizens
Virtù: ability to act heroically & decisively for the good of one’s country
The Prince (1513): Guidebook on how to rule a country
Recommends temporary use of fraud
Hoped for strong ruler from the Medici family to lead Italy Humanism: The scholarly study of Greek & Latin classics & the ancient Church Fathers, in hopes of reviving worthy ancient values
Advocated studia humanitatis
Liberal arts study to celebrate the dignity of humankind & prepare for life of virtuous action
Grammar, Rhetoric, Poetry, History, Politics, Philosophy
Italian humanists took Greek & Latin knowledge to:
Spread to to mainstream education
Expand education Humanism The Italian City-State Warfare between political emperors & the Pope weakened the political structure of the city-states
Allowed the rise of the merchant class to rise as the leaders of the city-states
Characterized by intense social strife & competition for political power
4 Social classes of a typical city-state:
1)Old Rich (Grandi)
2)New Rich (Popolo Grosso)
3)Small Business Owners (Sided often with the New Rich)
4)Poor (Popolo Minuto "Little People")
Old Rich often fought against the New Rich for power
Conflicts often left the Poor as the most punished
Ciompi Revolt A great uprising of the Poor in Florence...created a state of Anarchy
Cosimo de’ Medici
Florentine banker & statesman
His actions stopped the Anarchy within Florence
Manipulated the constitution & influenced elections
Despots (a king or other ruler with absolute, unlimited power)
Hired by many city states to keep order, usually with mercenary armies obtained through military brokers called condottieri Beginning: deaths of Petrarch (“father of humanism”) & Boccaccio
End: sack of Rome by Spanish imperial soldiers, 1527


Spread of “Civic Humanism” through northern Europe
Civic Humanism: Being involved in the community, politics, and the general well-being of the society. Being a good citizen
Italian city-states: 5 main:
1)Milan 2)Florence 3)Venice 4)Papal States 5)Naples
Prosperous urban centers of trade & commerce The Italian Renaissance
(1375–1527) Chapter 10
Renaissance & Discovery At first, condemned for the treatments of the native populations, Columbus and other explorers are hailed 300 years later for opening up the world to new civilizations
Influx of spices and precious metals increases inflation in Europe
New wealth, however, increased the expansion of printing, shipping, mining, textile, and weapons industries Impact in Europe Mining – the Spanish conquistadores or conquerors mined gold and silver with forced labor
Agriculture – on haciendas, large land estates owned by the peninsulares (people born in Spain) and creoles (people of Spanish descent born in America) used forced labor for mining, farming and ranching
Plantations in the West Indies used slaves to get sugar
Economic activity in government offices, the legal profession, and shipping
Labor servitude in order of appearance:
Encomienda – a formal grant of the right to the labor of a specific number of Indians
Repartimiento – required adult male Indians to devote a certain number of days of labor annually to Spanish economic enterprises
Debt peonage – Indian laborers required to purchase goods from the landowner to who they were forever indebted
Black slavery Latin America Exploitation Voyage of Discovery Marriage of Isabella of Castile & Ferdinand of Aragon
Main Accomplishments:
Secured Spanish Borders, Military Growth, Christianized Spain
Had the national gov't control religion in Spain
Promoted strict Catholicism
Spain used to home to Jews, Christians, & Muslims
Tried to convert Muslims & Jews
Those who refused lost their private property, could not hold public office, & were exiled
Sponsored Christopher Columbus,
Led to the Spanish Empire in Mexico & Peru,
Spain will be the dominant European power in 16th Century Renaissance Europe (post-14th c.)
Political centralization, national feelings
Urban, commercial-capitalist economy
Banking & Mercantilism
Growing lay/secular control of thought & culture
Academics moved away from the Church Terms "Renaissance" translates to “Rebirth”
Describes the time period transition from medieval to modern times
Medieval Europe (pre-12th c.)
Fragmented, feudal society
Agricultural economy
Church-dominated thought & culture The Renaissance I. The Renaissance in Italy
A. The Italian City-State
B. Humanism
C. Renaissance Art
D. Slavery in the Renaissance

II. Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494 – 1527)
A. Charles VIII’s March through Italy
B. Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia Family
C. Pope Julius II
D. Niccolò Machiavelli

III. Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe
A. France
B. Spain
C. England
D. The Holy Roman Empire IV. The Northern Renaissance
A. The Printing Press
B. Erasmus
C. Humanism & Reform

V. Voyages of Discovery & the New Empires in the West & East
A. The Portuguese Chart the Course
B. The Spanish Voyages of Columbus
C. The Spanish Empire in the New World
D. The Church in Spanish America
E. The Economy of Exploitation
F. The Impact on Europe Outline Women's Role in Florence Elegant Clothing 1st Feminist: Christine de Pisan Guidebook for Wives on how to be a good wife 3 Main Humanists Francesco Petrarch
"Father of Humanism"
Deeply interested in Ancient Rome
Wrote "Love Sonnets", Ancient Roman Biographies, & Personal Letters to Ancient Roman Figures Dante Alighieri
Author of the "Divine Comedy"
Literary depictions of Hell, Purgatory, & Heaven
1st modern illustrations of the Christian Afterworlds Giovanni Boccaccio
Wrote "Decameron"
Tales of a group of men & women escaping the plague in Florence
Exposes sexual & economic misconduct
Sympathetic look at human behavior
Assembled an Encyclopedia of Greek & Roman mythology Dante Petrarch Boccaccio Florence
Invited Manuel Chysoloras to promote Ancient Greek learning
Council of Ferrara-Florence
Met to negotiate the reunion of the Eastern & Western Church
Allowed movement of Greek scholars to Italy
Fall of Constantinople to the Turks
Greek scholars fled to Florence in refuge





Florentine “Academy”: Not a formal school, but gathering of influential Florentine humanists devoted to reviving Plato's teachings
Platonism: flattering view of human reason as part of the ideal (eternal) world, versus the real (perishable) world; human freedom
Humans were created perfectly but live in an imperfect world Lorenzo Valla Academically critiqued religious documents
Found numerous historical errors to prove them invalid
Became a hero to Protestant Reformation Civic Humanism Humanists believed that education should promote individual virtue & public service
Eventually humanists began to dominate Florentine politics

End of Renaissance:
Most Humanists became the intellectual elites of society
Self-removed socially from the mainstream public Giotto "Father of Renaissance Painting"
Love of nature
Painted the seriousness of religion Leonardo da Vinci "Renaissance Man": Universally talented
Great Painter & Sculptor
Advised Italian princes & Fr. King Francis I on military engineering
Scientific Experiments
Dissected Corpses
Self-taught Botanist
Inventor
Airplane
Submarine Raphael Great Painter
Paints "Madonnas" & Cherubs
"The School of Athens"
Painting that highlights the greatest philosophical & scientific minds of the ancient worlds Michelangelo Artist who worked for 4 different Popes
Known for his devotion to harmony, symmetry, & proportion Slavery Diverse slave origins throughout Italy
Had complete power over slaves
But incorporated mixed offspring into families Peasant pop. decr. (due to the plague)
Europe needed labor supply Italy's city-states always had rivalries that led to conflicts
Treaty of Lodi
Brought together the rival city-states of Milan & Naples with an alliance with Florence
Those city-states would compete against the city-states of Venice & the Papal States Milan Naples Venice Papal States Florence VS. Milan Naples Venice Florence VS. Papal States France Milan despot Ludovico il Moro rose to power
Led to conflict with Naples
To defeat Naples Ludovico acted in frustration to France
France believed they had claims to Naples
But France also believed they had a right to Milan & they had quite the appetite for new territory The French Invasions (1494–1527) French King Charles VIII
Responded to Ludovico's call for help

Ruler of Florence (Piero de Medici)
Tried to please Fr. King Charles VIII
Led to his exile

New ruler of Florence (Girolamo Savonarola)
Convinced Florentines that Fr. Charles VIII's arrival was God's punishment for their immorality Girolamo Savonarola (Florence) payed Charles VIII (France) to save the Florence from destruction
But France took Florence
Girolamo Savonarola was executed by his own people The denomination of France throughout Florence scared a lot of rulers
Ferdinand of Aragon (Spain & Sicily) called for an alliance against France (Charles VIII)
League of Venice: Brought together Venice, the Papal States, the Hapsburgs, & Spain
Ludovico il Moro now understood that France was destroying all of Italy decided to also join the League of Venice
Charles VIII (France) retreats out of Italy Milan Naples Venice Florence VS. Papal States France League of Venice Spain The Borgia Pope (Alexander VI)
Leader of the Papal States
Known as possibly the "Most Corrupt Pope"
Openly promoted the political careers of his two children
Cesare Borgia & Lucrezia Borgia
Promoted warfare to get more power

Pope Alexander VI reached out to France's new King (Louis XII)
To try to dominate all of Italy under either French or Papal control
Trade-offs between Pope Alexander VI & Fr. King Louis XII What Pope Alexander VI did:
Allowed Louis XII to receive a divorce in order to marry the last French King's widow
Promoted Louis XII's favorite church figures
Withdrew the Papal States from League of Venice What Fr. King Louis XII did:
Allowed the Pope's son (Cesare Borgia) to marry the king's sister (for political power)
Gave valuable land
Gave French military aid Popes Intervene The Trade Fr. King (Louis XII) & Pope Alexander VI will take over a large portion of Italy
Milan is destroyed
Initial aggressor (Ludovico il Moro) will die in a Fr. prison
Naples is also destroyed Cardinal Guiliano della Rovere (Pope Julius II) suceeded Pope Alexander VI
Changed the Papacy to a "military machine"
Known as the "Warrior Pope"
Was often criticized for his lack of religious respect
Ex) Held a bullfight in the Papal Palace

Fought Venice to secure the Papal States
Betrayed his allegiance to the French
Joined the "Second Holy League"
Along with Aragon (Spain), Venice, Hapsburgs, & Swiss
To remove the French from Italy
Swiss army defeated French military in Italy Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe France Spain France was set defined by the Hundred Years’ War & the Defeat of Charles the Bold of Burgundy
Charles the Bold of Burgundy was the strongest political power in Europe at the time
With his death most of his land went to France
France now doubled in size
French King Charles VII
Created a professional army
Strong economy
Fought off the English in France
French King Louis XI
expanded the economy
Created a national postal service (1st)
Created a great silk industry England Holy Roman Empire Civil War broke out in England after the Hundred Years' War
Wars of the Roses
Civil War between royal families that were arguing over who had the right to rule England
Families belonged to either the House of Lancaster or the House of York
Named because the family emblems included either white roses or red roses
After 30 years of conflict Henry VII married Elizabeth of York to unite the two families
Created the beginning of the Tudor dynasty of England Henry VII created the Court of Star Chamber
Court was intended to make sure that the nobles couldn't just bribe their way out of court
The King made sure that he controlled the fates of the judges
So they rarely decided against the king Germany & Italy went against the growth of centralized nationalization
People would rather be ruled by many local or regional rulers instead of an emperor
Germany & Italy had 100s of autonomous rulers
Golden Bull
Emperor Charles IV elected emperor of these territories with very limited power that could be "checked" by hundreds of princes throughout the region
Imperial Reichstag created
A national assembly that could act against any ruler Gutenberg Bible Erasmus Most famous Northern Humanist
Known as an Education & Religious Reformer
Wrote textbooks to teach lay-people how to read
Made certain phrases popular
"Leave no stone unturned"
"Where there is is, there is fire"
Translated the New Testament into various (modern) languages
Made it so that the :average educated" person could read the Bible Consequences of European Exploration Marked the beginning of the Dominance of Spain over the next 2 centuries
Allows Spain to defiantly defend Catholicism through the Reformation
Originally they were "Voyages of Discovery"
Became "Expeditions of Conquest"
Encouraged the rest of Europe to make their own colonial claims

Native American destiny changed after the Europeans came over
For centuries they would be the victims of conquests, diseases, & slave labor Portuguese Begin Exploration Prince Henry "The Navigator"
Funded a navigational school to teach proper sailing & navigation techniques
Explored the coast of Northern Africa
2 Reasons
Money: Gold & Spices
Religion: Converted Muslims to Christ
Portugal wanted to avoid a Venetian-Muslim monopoly of spices (salt!)
So they looked for a way to sail directly to Asia for cheaper spices
Land Route = Took too long, expensive, & dangerous
Began sailing around Africa toward Asia
Bartholomew Dias
1st to go around the Cape of Good Hope (Southern tip of Africa)
Vasco da Gama
1st to sail around Africa to India
Spices brought back from India were worth 60 x his trip Spanish Voyage Across the Atlantic Christopher Columbus
Landed in the Bahamas (Caribbean) 3 times
Was looking for a shorter route to Asia
For the first 2/3 trips he thought he landed somewhere in Asia
Was completely amazed by how generous the Natives were
They offered his all the men food, assistance, & sexual favors they could ask for
Took notes on how easy it would be for the Spanish to enslave them
Amerigo Vespucci
Explorer who made detailed maps of the Americas
The "Americas" were named after his maps
Ferdinand Magellan
1st group of sailors to circumnavigate the world Aztecs Incas Native Americans who dominated Mexico region
Believed in human sacrifice to "feed" & "please" the gods
Used smaller tribes for slave labor & sacrifice
Aztec leader Moctezuma thought Spanish general Hernan Cortes was a god
Greated him & gave them gold freely
Spanish saw the gold & decided to destroy the Aztecs to get all the gold
Cortes will murder Moctezuma & destroy the Aztec civilization with only a few hundred men
Native Americans who dominated the Andes mountains throughout South America
Society was built upon service for the civilization
Almost a socialistic economy
Spanish Conquistador Francisco Pizarro destroyed the Incan Civilization with only a few hundred men
Wanted gold
Incans were not surrounded by gold...they traded for it
Killed Incan leader Atahualpa
Disease brought by the Europeans will decimate both groups
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