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A New Century and War

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Lisa Lane

on 6 April 2016

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Transcript of A New Century and War

A New Century and War
How did growing US influence abroad and WWI affect the nation and NC?
As a result of the shrinking world, Americans became more aware of
conflicts
and events around the world. The nation soon found itself involved in
international
affairs.
Some people in the US were
uncomfortable
with this new role
Most citizens expected the government to
protect
them and their business interests in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia
Our role in conflicts and events in other countries soon made us a world
power
Expanding the Nation (again)
In 1867, Secretary of State William Seward had arranged for the US to buy
Alaska
from Russia for $7.2 million or less than 2 cents per acre
Some thought it was foolish to buy a land of ice and snow
Called it “Seward’s
Icebox
” and “Seward’s Folly”
Others understood that it was a land rich in timber, fish, and furs
These people were called
expansionists
, or those that favored taking over land outside the country
Not long after Alaska was purchased,
gold
and other resources were discovered there.
Alaska became our
49th state
on January 3, 1959
WWI
The industrial nations of the world are competing for
raw
materials and customers
These nations are racing to see who could build the biggest
navy
and strongest army
Each nation also tried to build as large an empire as possible
All of this led to
small
wars and, in time, the the largest war in history, WWI
Allies--Serbia, France, Great Britain,
Russia
, Japan, Italy, and the US
Central Powers--Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria

Progressive Movement
This era started in 1890 and lasted until the 1920’s.
It introduced several
reforms
that increased the power of the people in government
The
Muckrakers
were writers who investigated unethical and illegal practice in
industry
, government, and society. They exposed wrong-doings. They often exaggerated accounts of what was happening
Ida Tarbell, who helped exposed Rockefeller’s Standard Oil, was considered the
pioneer
in investigative journalism
Remember:
As the US grew larger and more powerful in the 20th century, the world seemed to “
shrink
.” News and people traveled faster than ever before as a result of the
inventions
that came out of the Industrial Revolution.
By the early 1900’s, the US was one of the
richest
nations in the world
Each year thousands of ships loaded with steel, machinery, and other goods left the US ports and sailed to countries in
all
parts of the world
The people of the US also started
businesses
in other countries
This growing involvement brought the US into conflicts
overseas
We attack first in the Pacific, and then in
Cuba
Theodore Roosevelt, one of many volunteers, led a group known as the
Rough Riders
This group included cowboys, lumberjacks, and Native Americans
They were considered a
cavalry
because they were soldiers on horseback
US
wins
the war
Spain freed Cuba
Spain gave the US the islands of Guam and
Puerto Rico
to the US
Spain sold the Philippians to the US for $
20
million
Some people in the US were against us taking over other lands
This is known as
imperialism
Most Americans favored
expansion
so the treaty was approved
Becoming a World Power
A war with
Spain
..Spanish War
Spain ruled
Cuba
at this time and Cuban residents revolted
US reporters went to Cuba to report to the US what was happening
As the fighting continued, the US read the shocking accounts
These were often exaggerated and included opinions instead of just
facts
. This is known as yellow journalism
They urged Congress to help free Cuba of Spanish rule
Remember, Cuba is only
90
miles from the US
The US tries to stay out of it
But a US
battleship
that was stationed in Cuba to protect the US citizens from fighting was blown up while in the harbor of Havana, Cuba
More than
250
of those there were killed
To this day, we don’t know the
cause
of the explosion
This explosion caused the US to declare
war
on Spain
REVAMP
1. Name one of the results of the “shrinking” world.

2. What country was a colony of Spain, that when it revolted, it worried our citizens due to yellow journalism?

3. What was the name of the cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt?

4. What territory did we win when we won the Spanish War that we still have today?

Hawaii
Many American business people had settled in the islands
They set up
sugar
plantations hoping to sell Hawaiian sugar to the US
Hawaiian ruler, Queen Liliuokalani, wanted to limit foreign power in Hawaii but the US settlers
revolted
against her and won
1898 President William McKinley made Hawaii a
territory
of the US
1959 Hawaii became the nation’s
50th
state
Panama
Canal
Connects the
Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans making the shipping industry quicker
US paid Panama $10 million and $250,000 yearly for the land on which the canal was built
1977, Jimmy
Carter
signed the Panama Canal Treaty transferring control of the canal to Panama at the end of the 20th century
Democratic rule (had been a dictatorship) was returned to Panama in the
1990's
On December 31, 1999, the Panama Canal was peacefully turned over to Panama

Queen Liliuokalani
William Seward
Teddy Roosevelt
Rough Riders
Telegraph
REVAMP
1. Justify the reason many people of the US called Alaska’s purchase “Seward’s Folly?”

2. What number of state was Alaska? Hawaii?

3. How was the US able to acquire Hawaii?

4. What body of water did we build that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans making shipping faster?

Allied Forces and Central Powers European Map
Causes of WWI
Industrial countries in Europe were very
competitive
; they wanted to increase the size of their empires
Countries formed
alliances
(like a friendship)
to protect themselves from each other. If attacked, alliances would
defend
them
The alliances are what
brought
many of the countries into the war
War was triggered by the assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand

WWI and America
The US tried to stay
out
of the war
Most Americans saw it as a European affair in which they had no interest
When the war began, the US declared
neutrality
,
meaning it would not help either side
Despite President Woodrow Wilson urging Americans to stay neutral, many began to favor the Allied cause
Propaganda

(information that emphasizes on one side of a story)
used to sway people towards the Allies
Allies had more
democratic
governments like the US
US had greater
economic
ties to the Allies
US had been formed by
British
colonies so felt closer to them

US started to turn on Germany when their
U-boats

(submarines)
sunk the Lusitania, a British passenger ship which was unarmed.
More than 100 Americans died
This was
against
the law because the seas were to be neutral territory
German U-boats also sank numerous American commercial ships
Zimmerman Telegram
US discovered that the German government had sent a telegram to the government of
Mexico
Germany urged Mexico to join the Central Powers and declare
war
on the US
In return, Germany would help Mexico regain its “
lost
territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona” (Mexican War)
April 6, 1917, Congress declared war on
Germany

Treaty of Versailles made the following conditions:
Germany was forced to give up
territory
and colonies
Germany’s
army
size was reduced and it was forbidden to have submarines and aircraft
Germany accepted responsibility for starting the
war
and was penalized $33 million in damages to other nations
The
League of Nations
was formed
Created by President Woodrow
Wilson
to settle conflicts without war
US citizens believed that their country’s best hope for peace was to stay
neutral
In the end, the US
didn’t
join the League

Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie
WWI Progaganda
Zimmerman
Telegram
U Boat
War inventions
Machine
gun was made more advanced
Trench warfare
Poison
gas
Tanks
Airplanes were used to
bomb
battlegrounds for 1st time
Results of WWI
The Treaty of Versailles severely punished Germany. Even though Germany never paid all the money it owed, this still damaged its already weakened economy
Historians now believe that the loss of pride and economic hardship led the Germans to elect Adolf
Hitler
Treaty of Versailles is a major
cause
of WWII
WWI Airplanes
REVAMP
1. How does it make sense that with the “shrinking” world that industrial nations are competing over raw materials and customers? Support your answer!
2. What would motivate many small wars between European countries prior to WWI?

3. What caused many Americans to be persuaded to be on the Allies side of the war?
4. Name the treaty that ended WWI.
5. Which side won the war?
6. Who did the treaty punish?
7. How did growing US influence abroad and WWI affect the nation and NC?

Ida Tarbell
Progressivism affect both NC and the US
Paying

pensions
(a plan to set aside money for retirement)
to disabled and destitute veterans
Created or supported orphanages and institutes for mentally ill
Revised voting laws making it almost
impossible
for AA’s to vote (setback)
AA’s were
fired
from wartime jobs, and they were not allowed to live where they wanted or go to school where they wanted
NAACP
(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) was formed to help AA’s gain civil rights by bringing discrimination cases to court
Prohibition
(the period between 1919 and 1933 when the manufacture, purchase, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited by the
Volstead Act
which enforced the
18th Amendment
which WAS Prohibition)
Women and church groups wanted this law
Repealed in 1933
Reduced the workweek and enacted child
labor
laws
19th
Amendment passed
Women’s suffrage
NC and TN did
NOT
pass this

Roaring 20’s
7 changes during this time period
Fear of communists--Americans feared we’d be taken over by Communists (
Red
Scare
)
Set
immigration
limits--set the total number of immigrants that could come to the US each year and the number allowed to enter from different countries
Citizenship for
Native
Americans--felt they should have civil rights because they fought in the war even though they weren’t citizens
Voting rights for women--
19th
Amendment
Beginning of the
consumer
age--factories poured out consumer goods and as industries boomed providing good wages so people could afford to buy items
Credit--people went into
debt
spending more money than they earned
Other changes:
Movies
were being made in a new Hollywood
Radio brought entertainment to
homes
Sports stars became larger-than- life
heroes
(like Babe Ruth)
Was known as the
Jazz
Age because jazz was the new music
Harlem
Renaissance

(when Harlem witnessed a burst of creativity)
Inspired an interest in African
culture
and pride in being African American
During the Prohibition, the Bureau of Prohibition would dump out any alcohol they found
Consumer Age
First Women Voting
Changes for women
Allowed
to vote
In the workplace, they were allowed to take jobs considered “
women’s
work” such as teaching and working in offices
College educated women could get
professional
careers
More women worked after
marriage
Vast majority remained in the home as homemakers and
mothers
Flappers--named as such because they were carefree young women with short, “bobbed” hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts
Many were shocked at this image and saw them as bad morals but the
symbol
reinforced the idea that women had more freedom
Harlem Renaissance
REVAMP
1. During the Progressive Movement, several reforms were introduced. In general, what did these reforms do to improve our nation?
2. What were some setbacks of the Progressive Movement?
3. Define “consumer age.”
4. Name a change for women:
5. Pick one of the categories under “Other Changes,” Google it, and summarize something interesting about it.
6. In your opinion, what was the most ideal change during the Progressive Movement?

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