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Unit 2 AOS 2 CH8 & CH9 Australia's Children

HHD Unit 2 2014 - AOS 2 Key Concepts in VCE Health and Human Development Chapters 8 & 9

Rachel Weiss

on 25 August 2015

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Transcript of Unit 2 AOS 2 CH8 & CH9 Australia's Children

Case Study
Read case study - "Spare the comparisons
Principles of individual human development
Development in humans, although occurring at different times and at different rates, has some similarities for all people.
A number of principles govern the development that humans experience and many of these are particularly evident in the infancy and childhood stages.
3. There are individual variations in the rate and timing of development
5. Development proceeds from the simple to the complex

Thought processes and motor skill development go from simple to complex. Once the simple aspects have been attained, they can be built upon to make the skills more complex. For example, infants think in a concrete way but, as they move through the childhood and youth stages, abstract thought develops. A child usually learns to crawl before walking and ultimately running.
The PIES of development
Life at One - ABC
You are to work in small groups.
You will each be allocated a child from the video 'Life at One'.

Watch the video and complete the response questions relating to that child.

Physical, Intellectual, Emotional & Social development
Brainstorm as many changes as you can think of that occur during infancy.

What changes physically? What changes are there in intellectual development? Emotional? Social?
Late Childhood
6th birthday -> 12 years of age
Late childhood starts at the sixth birthday and continues until 12 years of age.

During this time, the child will begin formal schooling while continuing to grow in a similar fashion to that experienced in early childhood.
Development during infancy
Infancy is the first stage of the lifespan after birth and lasts until the second birthday.
Newborns are relatively helpless. They cannot feed, maintain body warmth, or stay clean or hydrated without the assistance of others. With interaction and adequate care, the infant will begin to show significant gains in all areas of development.
For the first 28 days after birth, the infant is referred to as a neonate and undergoes significant changes or adaptations that help it to survive outside the uterus.
The health and individual human development of Australia’s children

Development that occurs during the infancy and childhood stages builds on the foundations laid down in the prenatal stage and plays a significant role in the development that will occur across the rest of the lifespan. Maintaining adequate health is a key factor in achieving optimal development and vice versa.

Having an understanding of the health and development that occurs during these stages of the lifespan allows informed decisions to be made for the promotion of optimal wellbeing among children.
Key Knowledge & Key Skills
2.1 physical, social, emotional and intellectual development from birth to late childhood

2.2 the principles of individual human development

2.3 the health status of Australia’s children.

describe the characteristics of individual human development from birth to late childhood

interpret data on the health status of Australia’s children.

Many aspects of development occur in predictable, orderly patterns.
From observing many individuals over long periods of time, experts can roughly predict when certain milestones should occur.
Eg. most infants learn to walk at 9 to 15 months.

Many aspects of human development require other skills in order to occur.
eg. if a child is to put a sentence together, they need to be able to manipulate their vocal chords, know the meanings of words and articulate the sentence so it makes sense.
If any of these prior skills are not present, then the child will not be able to make a sentence that makes sense.
1. Development occurs in a predictable and orderly way
Development starts with conception and ends with death.
All skills learnt and milestones achieved between these two events form part of development.
The foundations laid in one stage (e.g. learning to write in early childhood) will be built upon in the next (figure 8.2).
The decline in body systems and memory over time are also a part of this principle, indicating that humans never stop developing.
2. Development is continual
Many factors influence development such as hormones, genetics, family interaction, nutrition, physical activity levels and state of health.

As a result, there will be variations in when milestones are reached and how developed one person is compared to another person of the same age.

These factors also influence how quickly it takes a person to move through a developmental stage.
4. Development follows predictable patterns
Growth and motor skill development follow patterns that are observable in all people. The cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns of development are particularly evident during the prenatal, infant and childhood stages of the lifespan.

Cephalocaudal development refers to growth and development that occurs from the head down.
An infant will gain control over their neck muscles first, which allows them to hold their head steady. Control over their shoulder muscles usually follows, which allows them to roll over.
Finally, control over the muscles in their torso allows them to sit.
The size of the head of an infant in relation to the rest of the body also illustrates this pattern of development.
Cephalocaudal development
Proximodistal development occurs from the centre or core of the body in an outward direction.
An example is the way that the spine develops first in the uterus, followed by the extremities and finally the fingers and toes (figure 8.5).
In motor development, an infant reaches for a toy by using shoulder and torso rotation in order to move the hand closer to the object.
In childhood, the elbow and wrist are responsible for the main movements.
Proximodistal development
Workbook Questions

1. Why is it not useful for parents to compare their children to other children?

2. How could a child’s interests influence how fast they develop?

3. How could performing ‘for the wrong reasons’ influence future development?

APPLY your knowledge
2. Consider the following developmental milestones and explain how three principles of development are evident in each one:
a) learning to write
b) learning to throw a ball
c) a baby learning to sit up.
Adaptations of the neonate

In the uterus, the foetus relies on its mother for the provision of oxygen, nutrients and warmth and for the excretion of wastes.
After birth, the infant must adapt to the outside environment and carry out many of these bodily functions itself, although it is still heavily reliant on help from parents or other caregivers.
In the uterus, the lungs of the foetus are filled with fluid and play no part in circulation.

Instead of travelling to the lungs, the blood must travel to the placenta to become oxygenated.

Although the foetus may display a breathing-like motion in the uterus, there is only amniotic fluid in its immediate environment. As a result, its lungs are filled with fluid.

Once outside the uterus, the infant will take its first breath, usually within 10 seconds after birth. This prompts the bloodstream to absorb the fluid from the lungs, so the lungs will fill with air for the first time.

A special substance (called pulmonary surfactant) allows the lungs to expand when inhaling and prevents them from collapsing when exhaling. Breathing may be shallow and irregular for minutes or hours before it becomes more rhythmic.
How does a baby get oxygen if it isn't breathing air???
During prenatal development, the foetus receives its nutrients from the mother.
After birth, the infant has some nutrients stored but relies on regular feeding in order to grow and develop properly.
The mother’s breast tissue produces a substance called colostrum for the first few days after birth and then regular breastmilk after that.

is a concentrated form of breastmilk that is also rich in antibodies, which boosts the infant’s immune function.
How does the baby receive nutrients?
At birth, the excretory organs — which include the kidneys, liver and bowel — become functional and capable of eliminating waste products.
For the first few days after birth, meconium is passed through the bowels rather than normal faeces.

is a dark, sticky, tar-like substance that includes things ingested whilst in the uterus such as mucous, bile and water.
Unlike later faeces, meconium is a thick liquid that does not have an odour.
The mother’s body temperature maintains the temperature of the foetus.
After birth, temperature must be regulated in some other manner.

Although they have fat stores that assist with temperature regulation, newborn infants are not capable of regulating their body temperature and rely on blankets, clothing, environmental heat and body heat from others in order to survive.

APGAR is an acronym for Activity, Pulse, Grimace, Appearance and Respiration. Generally the first test given to newborns, the APGAR test is used to assess the infant’s adaptation to life outside the uterus. The test is usually administered twice, at one minute and at five minutes after birth. Judgements are made on the five aspects of the test and scores given accordingly
The APGAR test
Learning Task
Complete the Learning Task - Principles of Development.
You have 1 period to complete this!
Group Activity
You have each been asked to bring a photo of yourself aged under 12 years of age.
The aim is to identify who, but more importantly the age and the reasons why – justifications, body proportions, hair length, teeth, etc...
Fill in the handout:
Guess who it is:
Estimate their age:
Provide justification for age / stage of development:

In your groups, share the information you gathered on the child allocated and complete response questions in your workbooks.
Share your ideas!

Each group is to present their discussion to the class
Physical Development
Physically, the infancy stage is the
second fastest
period of physical development in the lifespan, second only to the prenatal stage.
weight doubles by six months
and triples by 12 months.
Body proportions also start to change, reflecting the cephalocaudal pattern of development.
senses continue to develop
and, although vision is still largely blurry, the infant will soon begin to recognise familiar faces and sounds.
Bones continue to ossify
during infancy.
By the first year, the infant can support its own weight.
that are present at birth (e.g. the grasping reflex) are gradually
replaced by controlled movements
as motor skills develop.
A newborn infant does not have much control over its body but will soon learn to lift its head and roll over.
At around
six months
, infants start
By the
age of one
, many infants can
stand and walk
By age two, they can usually throw and kick a large ball.
Social Development
family is the most significant influence
on social development at this stage of the lifespan.

The infant begins to smile at around six weeks, and after around six months the infant will begin to recognise facial expressions of others, such as a smile or a frown.

At around six months of age, the infant can enjoy basic games such as peekaboo.

Play forms an important part of social development
. They enjoy games and become increasingly responsive to them. Many social skills are learnt about
and taking turns through play. This may occur with siblings and parents at home, and also with other children at child-care or playgroups.

Through experiences such as these, the infant also begins to
learn culturally acceptable behaviours
such as
to parents and
not hitting others

As language develops (intellectual development), infants can interact better with those around them. They can generally speak a few words at around one year of age, and understand many more. This allows parents to more easily guide the social development of their infant.
Emotional Development
Emotional development also
revolves around the family
at this stage of the lifespan. One of the first signs of emotional development is when the hurt or distressed infant can be comforted by its caregivers.

attachment is formed with the caregivers
within months and this helps the infant to feel secure, safe and loved. It also helps to build trust.

eight months
, the infant
can express anger and happiness
, and may become frustrated if interrupted in their activities (e.g. when playing games). This expression of frustration may result in tantrum-throwing in later months.

12 months
, the infant becomes
sensitive to approval from parents
. It may become upset or distressed if approval is not gained.
Intellectual Development
From the time of birth, all senses are working (although they become more acute over time) and the baby is capable of learning.

Within months
, the infant will
recognise its name
and will respond when called.

Over time, this
word–object association progresses
and the infant will begin to recognise the names of favourite people, toys, other objects and basic colours.

Early infancy also signifies an
emerging understanding of cause and effect
. Infants will begin to associate certain actions with particular outcomes.
eg. if they cry, they get attention. If they reach for someone, that person may pick them up. If they kick their legs around, their caregivers might play with them.
attention span
of an infant is short and
may last only a matter of seconds
. The infant may give extra attention to games and objects that it finds interesting, but only for very short periods of time.
In early infancy, an object that is out of sight no longer exists in the mind of the infant. So a toy that is placed in a cupboard no longer exists.

As the infant develops intellectually, it begins to understand that, although an object cannot be seen, it still exists. This concept is known as
object permanence.

Language development is rapid during infancy. A three-month-old will make speech-like sounds (‘goo’ and ‘gaa’), and will be able to say a couple of basic words by the first birthday (‘dada’ or ‘mumma’). The development of language occurs very quickly after this point. By the end of infancy the individual can say around 150–300 words, although there is still confusion in context and pronunciation.
By 18 months, the infant can imitate and pretend in play activities. By observing others, the infant learns a lot about the world around it. Infants may imitate talking on a phone or having a dinner party.
Workbook Questions
TEST your knowledge
1. When does the infancy stage of the lifespan begin and end?
2. a)Briefly describe the APGAR test.
b) Explain why the test would be administered twice after birth.
3. a)Describe the adaptations an infant must make after birth.
b)Which adaptations is the neonate particularly dependent on others for?
4. Describe the pattern of growth during infancy.
5. List three characteristics for each type of development during the infancy stage.
APPLY your knowledge
6. Using the concept of object permanence as the basis of your answer, discuss why infants may particularly enjoy a game of peekaboo.
7. An infant scores 4 on the APGAR test one minute after birth and then scores 8 five minutes after birth. Discuss two adaptations of the neonate that may have contributed to this increase in APGAR score.
Development during early childhood
Early childhood lasts from the
second birthday until six years of age
Physical Development
Early childhood is characterised by slow and steady growth.

Although the rate of growth is variable,
height increases by around 6 centimetres per year

Weight by around
2.5 kilograms per year
Bones continue to lengthen and ossify during early childhood, resulting in the increases in height experienced.
Body proportions change
during early childhood, and the limbs and torso become more proportionate to the head.
Body-fat levels also decrease
, giving the child a leaner body type. Children may begin to
lose baby teeth
as the permanent teeth begin to develop.

While muscle development slows during early childhood,
motor skill development continues at a rapid rate

Gross motor skills increase and the walking style becomes more fluid and refined. The child can climb stairs but will still need to place both feet on each step until towards the end of early childhood.
Kicking, catching and throwing skills also develop, and the child might learn how to skip.
Coordination improves
, allowing the child to pedal and steer a tricycle.
Fine motor skills progress
, and the child can learn to manipulate zippers on clothing, hold crayons, use scissors and even tie shoelaces.
As a result of these activities,
left or right-handedness
starts to appear in certain activities.
Social development
family remains the primary social contact
during childhood and is responsible for many achievements in social development made by the child.
The child will begin participating in a wider range of family routines such as attending social functions, eating at the table and helping with the shopping.
Communication skills and acceptable social behaviours increase
as a result of these experiences.
Behaviours such as eating with a knife and fork are established during early childhood but they will be refined over time.

Children at this age like to be accepted by others and may behave in a way that brings attention to them. This can include showing off or performing for family and friends.
The child may attend a playgroup, kindergarten or a child-care centre, and this provides many opportunities to further develop social skills such as sharing and taking turns.
As the child becomes accustomed to spending short periods of time away from the family, independence starts to develop.
The child may start wanting to do things for themselves such as dressing or washing, although they may not be completely successful.
Play is still an important aspect of social development, although it is more advanced than in infancy.

Children may have a friend to play with and some will create an imaginary friend.

Make-believe play might also be a part of the child’s playing patterns.
Emotional development
Emotional development continues to occur at a rather fast pace during early childhood. The emotional development of a two-year-old is quite different from that of a six-year-old.
A child will
begin to develop a sense of empathy
and may care for people who are crying or upset.
Their way of
dealing with emotions
is still in its
early stages
, and children may use physical violence to express their frustration.
This is particularly common with other children or siblings. Play often gives children a way of expressing their feelings.
Children take pride in their achievements and may want to show them off to everyone.
As a result of enjoying positive feedback from others, they may become jealous when another child receives attention.
begin to develop an identity
that will continue to form for years to come.

They learn to see themselves as being separate from others, and begin to associate certain things with themselves such as ownership of a toy.

Mood can change quickly
during this stage as children often do not have the skills required to control their feelings.
Intellectual development
Learning new words and how to use language occurs fairly rapidly during this stage and is a key part of the child’s intellectual development. By the age of five, a child knows approximately 1500–2500 words.

As interest in the world around them increases, children begin to question many aspects of their environment. They ask parents or caregivers ‘why?’ and like to share their knowledge with others about colours, objects and animals.

As their attention span lengthens and knowledge of language increases, children can remember and follow basic instructions such as getting a toy from the bedroom, bringing it back to the lounge room and sitting in a designated place with it.

In the first years of early childhood, the child can classify objects based on one aspect such as colour. For example, they can separate orange blocks from green blocks, but find it more difficult to classify items according to multiple aspects such as colour and size. These more complex skills develop over time.

Children in this lifespan stage may learn to write basic letters and read basic books. They can also learn to count to 10 or 20, although this is often memorised without really understanding the formation of numbers.

Abstract thought and prediction of the outcome of events is still difficult, and children are more comfortable thinking about objects they have already encountered.
Workbook questions
Complete 8.3 - Q1-Q4
(Test your knowledge & Apply your knowledge)
Physical development in late childhood is slow and steady, as it was in early childhood.
Bones and muscles continue to grow in length and width. Height continues to increase by 5 to 6 centimetres per year, and weight increases by around 3 kilograms per year.
Both sexes have similar body shapes until the onset of puberty, although males may be slightly larger. Body proportions continue to change as the head grows more slowly in comparison to the torso, arms and legs. A child in the late childhood stage has similar body proportions to an adult.
Permanent teeth continue to develop and, by the end of late childhood, most permanent teeth will be present.

Physical Development
The child gains greater control over their body, and motor skills develop as a result. As size and strength increase, children can perform more complex physical tasks such as playing basketball or participating in gymnastics. They have also had years to develop speed, agility and balance, and these skills are used in many physical activities such as games and sport. More complex gross motor skills such as skipping are also refined during this time. Fine motor skills are developed, and a child at the beginning of late childhood can write basic sentences. Writing might still be illegible at times. By the end of late childhood, writing becomes more legible and the writing style may also be more established.
Write down what sports / activities you did as a child.
What age were you when you started?
Social Development
With the commencement of formal schooling, most children experience a wide range of social situations during late childhood.

As a result, relationships with others change and the child will generally have numerous social contacts outside the family.

Social skills such as sharing, communication and conflict resolution are further developed by this increase in social interaction.
Relationships at school are formed but are generally limited to members of the same sex. Skills such as cooperation and sharing are further developed as a result.

The child may still ‘show off’ in front of friends and family in order to gain attention. Children in this lifespan stage place increasing importance on being accepted by others (e.g. parents, teachers and peers) and may modify their behaviour in order to achieve approval.

Morals further develop during this time, and children acquire a greater sense of right and wrong as well as a better understanding of what is acceptable behaviour in their society.

As a result, children can generally make an informed decision about right and wrong even in new situations. In contrast, knowledge of right and wrong in early childhood is largely limited to the instances of right and wrong that have been taught by parents or caregivers.
Emotional development continues during late childhood, allowing children to control and recognise their emotions much better than they could in early childhood. As children develop empathy, they begin to be able to identify emotions in others.

Having better control of their emotions allows children to better function in a range of settings including school and at friends’ houses. Tantrums are generally not a common occurrence in this lifespan stage. Children also become more skilled at conveying emotions in words, and this may further increase control of their emotions.

Self-concept is largely established during this time although it will continue to be modified throughout life. Children will have formed ideas about what they are and are not good at (e.g. ‘I am a fast runner’ or ‘I am good at school’). As a result of these feelings, a child may become self-conscious in situations where they feel inadequate. This might occur around certain people, or in certain activities (e.g. playing soccer) if they feel they are not good at them.
Emotional Development
Much of a child’s intellectual development takes place at school. The brain continues to develop during late childhood and intellectual skills develop considerably.

At the beginning of this stage, children can generally follow basic instructions and place objects in a logical order (e.g. from big to small) or arrange them according to numerical value.

As they develop intellectually, the child can follow instructions with multiple steps and classify items based on multiple criteria.

Problem-solving skills develop and the child begins to be able to focus on ideas rather than objects.
Intellectual Development
Knowledge of language increases, allowing the child to complete tasks such as pluralising words most of the time. By the age of six, children know 2000–3000 words.

By the end of late childhood, they might know over 10 000 words.

Reading skills also develop during this stage and, by the age of 12, the individual can read and make sense of age-appropriate books.
Language skills
Children in late childhood generally have an increased interest in numbers and can perform basic mathematical problems.
They can also apply logic to equations and understand that 3 × 6 will produce the same answer as 6 × 3.

Attention span increases and the child can sit quietly in class for longer periods of time, but concentration will still lapse after a matter of minutes. Long-term memory develops and the child can more accurately recall stories of things that happened in the past.
Life at 7: ABC
Summarise the PIES of development relevant to the age/s covered in the videos.
Include some specific examples for each child.
In your workbook...
Shine, Joshua and Declan are getting older!
Watch the videos and record relevant notes in your workbook.
The role of toys in development
What was your favourite game as a child?
Write it down in your workbook
Now, for your favourite game respond to the following:
How may this game impact your development, or rely on your prior development

- Physically?
- Intellectually?
- Emotionally?
- Socially?
What are some of these 'expected' changes?
As a group fill in a few post-its and pop it on the board

1. Because kids develop at different rates. They have different strengths, talents and interests and comparing children to others can lead to unrealistic expectations, which can cause children to give up.

2. The child’s interests may govern how much they try at different things. If they have an interest in tennis, then their motor skills in this area may develop faster than other children of the same age.

3. The child may associate negative feelings with the activity, which can make them resent the activity. Andre Agassi spoke of this in 2009.

Suggested Answers
Case study: Spare the comparisons
Create a PIES matrix in your book to summarise the changes that are occurring.

Use one colour for your brainstorm, and
change colour as we go through the content on the next few slides :)
Honesty time... hands up if you ever fought with your sibling?
Joanne and Neil have three children: nine-year-old Lachlan, four-year-old Samantha and 18-month-old Tessa.
Lachlan loves playing basketball with his school mates and is saving the pocket money he receives from stacking the dishwasher after dinner to buy a new basketball.
Lachlan thinks his little sister Samantha is a real pain as she is constantly asking him questions like ‘why?’
Samantha sometimes feels lonely as her older brother does not want to play with her anymore, and her younger sister Tessa is too little to play with her. She has an imaginary friend called ‘Al’ who she plays with.
Joanne has recently returned to work and Tessa now goes to child care. She cries when her mother leaves her each morning and Tessa follows her mother around the house in the evenings, not wanting to let her out of her sight.
Neil distracts Tessa from following her mother around by playing building blocks with her. Tessa gets very excited, squealing and clapping her hands when she can build a tower that is five blocks high.
Case Study Task
Investigating the AIHW
The health status of Australia's Children: Mortality
Key health indicators place the health of Australia’s children among the best in the world.

Improvements are continually being made with regards to many health indicators and, as a result, most Australian children in today’s society can expect to live in good health.

Unfortunately, there are some exceptions, particularly among indigenous Australians, those living in remote areas and those of low socioeconomic backgrounds.

Infants and children in these groups experience higher mortality rates and greater risk of disease and injury.

Many statistics present
average figures
for all Australian children and, as a result, may mask the challenges facing some groups within the country.

When examining statistics, it is important to remember that not everyone enjoys the good health experienced by the majority.
Something to think about...
Complete 8.5
"Test Your Knowledge"
Produce an informative brochure for new parents about the SIDS and Kids ‘Safe Sleeping’ and ‘Tummy Time’ education campaigns. In your brochure, be sure to include:

1. ways to reduce SIDS and why each of these measures are important including:
2. guidelines as to how babies should be placed to sleep
3. mattress and cot requirements
4. what ‘tummy time’ refers to
5. why tummy time is important
6. considerations for tummy time.
The health status of Australia's Children: Morbidity
Although child mortality rates have decreased over time, there are many chronic conditions that impact on the health and human development of children.
Many chronic conditions have become more common in childhood over recent decades. According to the AIHW in 2012, 37 per cent of those aged 1–14 had a long term or chronic condition. The most frequently reported chronic conditions among children are shown in figure 8.21.
Complete 8.6
"Test your knowledge"
Play some games and using the handout analyse the relevant developmental processes for each game :)
Read Part III ‘How well are we promoting healthy child development?’ (pp. 33–34)
Use the table to summarise the information in Part III of the report and form your own summary of the protective factors that increase health and development in children.
AIHW report
"A picture of Australia’s children"
You may work in small groups for this task. Complete one A3 Handout per group.
Part 1
Part 2
Access the AIHW report A picture of Australia’s children 2009 from the following link and read Part V, ‘What factors can affect children adversely?’ (pp. 63–82).
Use the table to summarise the information in Part V of the report and form your own summary of the factors that increase ill health in children.

AIHW: 100 Aussie Kids
After viewing the powerpoint, discuss the statistics presented in small groups. What surprised you the most?
The determinants of health and individual human development in childhood
Childhood = foundations for later health and individual human development are established.
Children learn skills, knowledge and behaviours through their interaction with others and their environment
Australian children generally enjoy good health
indicated by the declining rates of morbidity and mortality from preventable conditions.
Although the overall health status of children is positive, there are areas of concern that need to be addressed.
Australian children are experiencing higher rates of
overweight and obesity
insufficient physical activity
poor eating habits
mental health issues
long-term health conditions such as asthma and type 1 diabetes.
A child’s level of health has a significant impact on physical, social, emotional and intellectual development.

In order to promote their optimal development, a child needs to have an appropriate level of physical, social and mental health.

Each child is born with a genetically determined developmental potential.

Whether or not a child achieves their potential depends on their health status.
The factors that impact on the health and individual human development of individuals and populations are referred to as ‘determinants’.
In most instances, it is not just one factor that influences health and individual development but a combination of factors. In this sense, health is seen to be

The determinants of health and individual human development can have positive or negative effects. Certain behavioural or lifestyle influences — such as eating habits or lack of physical activity — that increase the likelihood of ill-health in children are known as ‘
risk factors

Other behavioural or lifestyle influences — such as breastfeeding and childhood vaccinations — that reduce the likelihood of ill-health in children are commonly termed ‘
protective factors
Watch the video and respond to the following questions in your workbook:
1. What is the difference between exercise and physical activity?
2. List some of the benefits of physical activity
3. Social benefits are highlighted as significant in relation to physical activity. Record some social benefits of physical activity
4. How many hours of physical activity is recommended for children?
5. Explain the role of the family and experiences in childhood in shaping an individuals’ level of physical activity
6. How can physical activity contribute to other aspects of development?

Complete 9.1
Full transcript