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HE 400 Seminar Presentation: Gentrification and Neighbourhood Health

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Ali Meco

on 19 February 2013

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Transcript of HE 400 Seminar Presentation: Gentrification and Neighbourhood Health

Gentrification and Neighbourhood Health What Is Gentrification? Restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle and upper classes
Displacement of low-income residents Key Terms Planned Shrinkage "Undoing of American industrial development, which followed the inability of American industry to remain competitive" - Attributed to Cold War - Decollarization The practice of keeping ethnic, racial, religious, or gender groups separate - Gradual process - "American Apartheid" Preventing Gentrification First Steps Recall A free market does not benefit all Private capital, job creation, and tax revenues are unevenly distributed Development companies use their power to influence policy This allows them to develop in low income areas Clicker Which of the following describes neoliberalism? A. Free market and free trade

B. Privatizing government services

C. Reducing government regulation

D. Belief that free market economies benefit all
income classes

E. All of the above Residents facing displacement began to resist development Development companies saw benefit in having locals advocate for, rather than against them Collaboration between developers, government, and residents Linkage policies and inclusionary zoning Community
Benefits Agreements
(CBA) Community
Benefits Agreements Steering investment away from "risky" places Case Study: Hill District of Pittsburgh, PA Settled by Eastern Europeans for the steel industry African Americans were one of the first people there Forced to live in distinct sections of Pittsburgh, creating the ghetto of Hill District Shut off of new investment in ghetto areas Businesses and political leaders cleared hundreds of acres after WWII Cut off ghetto from the rest of the city by eliminating roads, public transit, and installing a major highway in between Population declined from 38 100 in 1950 to 9830 in 1990 Chronic unemployment due to deindustrialization
Drugs and violence flourished
Substantial housing loss
High income housing built at edge of district
HOPE VI built mixed-income housing "Project-specific contracts between developers or cities and community coalitions. CBAs are legally binding, enforceable agreements that call for a range of benefits to be produced by the development project." Criteria Some criteria commonly found in a CBA are:

Job opportunities

Job training

Living wages

Affordable housing Community centers

Community programing

Environmental protection Why are they Important? Advocacy with a CBA 2007: government wanted to introduce gambling

100 organizations joined together as the “One Hill Coalition”

Community benefits agreement was passed and designed to fix harms caused by gentrification Limited communication between community and developer

Developer's commitments are made to city

Limited coordination or communication between community groups

Community cannot enforce developer commitments Stage-State Model Integration: internal interconnection characterized by mutual support
Disintegration: individualism Outcomes of Gentrification Neighbourhood
Groups Other
Groups City Developer Development
Agreement Organization Mass criminalization Obesity AIDS Development is announced through public notice or shared information Community members seek support from influential organizations with similar interests Formation of coalition of community groups Negotiation between developer, city, and coalition CBA is drafted prior to city approval of project Key Characteristics
of Coalition Dysfunction Broadly inclusive Member groups carry weight in local government Able to control internal conflicts Obtain adequate legal advice Enforcement CBA will contain information on:
How compliance will be monitored
How noncompliance will be addressed Strengthened through incorporation into development agreement Include "flow down" language Related to collapse of manufacturing jobs
Explosion of violence
Triggered harsh policies and put many behind bars Psychosocial stress of forced migration and deindustrialization
May persist across generations due to epigenetic effects Economic displacement serves as powerful impetus for national diffusion Successful Negotiation A case study on the L.A. Live development project identified four political and economic factors that contribute to the success of a CBA : Evidence of increasing dysfunction after each negative event 1. Erosion of growth coalitions

2. Strengthening of community interest and slow-growth coalitions

3. Local politics reflect shift in organized labour

4. Strong real estate market and provision of government subsidies What Can We Do About Gentrification? Enforce anti-discrimination laws
End mass criminalization of minorities and the poor
Stop outsourcing manufacturing jobs Rebuild low-income housing
Rebuild community networks
End forced displacement of minorities Restore positive social interactions
- Restore businesses
- Upkeep of public space Hill District, PA Hill District, PA Case Study:
Rebuilding the Middle East Neighbourhood in Baltimore How To Gentrify Your Neighbourhood Health Impacts of Gentrification and Urban Renewal Three Ways that Urban Renewal Affects Health Clicker What population group is mostly affected from gentrification and urban renewal
A. Seniors
B. Children
C. African Americans
D. A,B,C
E. Extraterrestrials Elderly Doubly jeopardized :
1. More likely than other central city residents to
be displaced
2. They are more vulnerable than others to the
physical and emotional costs that forced
relocation can impose Physiological Reasons Visual difficulties
Hearing impairments
Slowed response time
A sudden environmental change can be hard for them to adapt to and will make their lives more difficult. Sociological Reasons Friends and neighbors form an important part of a social support group
Social isolation has been said to be related to mental depression and is believed to be a factor in the high rate of suicide among the aged Children Disadvantaged neighborhoods place children at increased risk for a huge range of stressful events
Crime and physical and social disorder, violence, drug abuse etc
Neighborhood disadvantage is related to child outcomes Hill District Children narrowly escaped being shot at near their homes
Children witnessing a murders behind a local recreation centers
Neighborhood plagued by high poverty, violence, gangs, drug activity
Levels of neighborhood violence affect the general health and development of young children Children's Mental Health Depression
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Evidence of the impact of chronic stress (I.e. induced by threats of violence on young children’s brain chemistry) thus impacting their biological capacities for learning Parents Trying to protect and buffer children from violence
Parental stress and restricted interactions among families
Lack social support group to reduce stress
City parents worried about the safety of their children's
Play environment
Findings suggest that safety concerns from parents play a key
Role in limiting children's outdoor activities
Children health issues ( I.e. obesity, trigger asthma etc.) David Jenkins Lived in Elmwood, Philadelphia
He lost the neighbors church people teachers and friends and a nature center that helped him make sense of his troubled life
Used sex and drugs to make it from day to day
Diagnosed with HIV 13 years before
Psychological trauma
Instability CLICKER What are the possible health outcomes of gentrification and urban renewal
A. Stress
B. Obesity
C. Depression
D. All of the above Low income neighbourhood
Residents are primarily African American
Johns Hopkins Medical Center chose it as the location for a new biotechnology park
Residents are distrusting of Johns Hopkins
Construction proceeded after enacting a successful CBA Negative Effects of Gentrification Middle East and Baltimore Redevelopment Action Coalition
Community Benefits Agreement (6.11.12 Draft)

Key Points Purpose
Maximize benefits for historical residents
Promote trust
Reflect the premise that displacement is bad for health Loss of Affordable Housing Community Life Initiatives
Rent remains fixed for 5 years
Community input on design components
Youth center, adult learning lab, childcare center, and recreation facility will be donated by developers Effects of Gentrification on Real Estate Market Healthcare
The Access Partnership Program
Includes all residents
Improve access to specialty care
Free primary and preventive care
Funded through trust fund provided by developers •Increases in rents and home prices
•Building of new condominiums or luxury housing
•Increases in offices, retail, restaurants, and other forms of entertainment in gentrifying areas further affects prices
•Gentrification often has an investment maximizing rationale Implications on Neighbourhood • Displacement:
o Residents forced out of the area
o Increased stress on travel or employment
• Housing Market
o Demand for affordable housing significantly increased Education
Children guaranteed spot in East Baltimore Community School
Education trust fund for college and trade school
Developers will contribute $100,000.00 annually Case Study: City of Atlanta Changes in Real Estate Market in from 1990 to 2000 Neoliberalism Control of economic factors is shifted from public sector to the private sector 1. The rule of the market: liberating enterprises from any bonds imposed by the government Workforce and Economy
50% of retail and commercial jobs reserved for residents
Staffing of East Baltimore Community School includes residents
Guaranteed living wages
Hiring practices free of discrimination
5% finders fee Housing and Neighbourhood
Freeze property taxes
1/3 new housing reserved for low income residents
1/3 new housing reserved for middle income residents
1/3 new housing at market value
Department of Transportation, Parking Authority, and Health Department will review master plan and publicly report results 2. Cutting public expenditure for social services 3. Deregulation 4. Privatization 5. Eliminating the concept of ‘the public good” or “community” Past Research •Have proposed that environmental hazards and socially vulnerable populations clustered together
•However, these studies did not present adequate details regarding the relative risk, the distributions of the worst exposures, and its impact on the nearby communities Case Study: City of Seattle Examined the spatial distribution of the highest hazard toxic air pollution producers in Seattle and their proximity to socially vulnerable neighbourhoods Case Study: City of Seattle Results: High pollution exposure risk and lower socioeconomic clusters converged The History of Gentrification The Old Renewal Period (1949-1974) The New Urban Renewal (1992-2007) 4 5 Case Study: City of Seattle Implications on Neighbourhood • Revealed an overlooked dimension
o Link between gentrification and exposure
• This area needs continual research • Future implications for urban planning and policy development
o Zoning, affordable housing The Old Renewal Period Segregation or Community Change Community Conflict Massive national effort to remove blighted properties and poverty from areas surrounding central business districts Urban renewal projects designed by white business leaders and intended to benefit white upper class citizens Did not alleviate blight and poverty; shifted it from one area to another and concentrated it The New
Urban Renewal Influx of new upper-income population in downtown areas Expanded core of cities by developing underutilized public housing communities near central business districts National scope vs. focusing on specific areas Gentrification can cause a more divided geography based on class, education or race Inequitable Development:
Emergence and growth of economically and socially divided communities • Protesting
• Aggressive campaigning
• Resentment Focused towards the effects of gentrification in the neighbourhood Case Study: City of Atlanta Change in Racial Composition Case Study: City of Atlanta Change in Education Levels Changes in Local Service Provision
Population Loss
Crime These topics have been known to occur in gentrifying areas but have limited research at this point 1. Direct cause of poor health ( ie. stress)
2. Indirect cause illness ( ie. exposed to conditions that
are associated with illnesses)
3. Fundamental cause of disease ( ie. can not buy
advantages such as education, proper nutrition) Physiological stress and psychological stress
Long term stress increases the risk of :
High blood pressure
Digestive problems
Sleep disorders
Dependent on stable and predictable environments than other groups Stress African Americans A historically disadvantaged group of people
African American homeowners have lost their investments and have been forced to move
Resulted in various health issues AIDS Planned shrinkage policies of fire service withdrawal
Expanded the infection from small concentration of drug users in the ‘South Bronx’ to the rest of the Bronx borough
Reflection of the intersection of social networks that was fragmented by forced displacement OBESITY African American death rates of obesity-related disorders such as diabetes and hypertension range from a quarter to half the rate for White Americans
Obesity related to the persistence of psychosocial stress in populations associated with serial displacements.
Empirical studies by Barker and colleagues suggest that these effects will persist across generations due to epigenetic effects Gentrification and Displacement Clicker Question Clicker Question Do you, or have you ever, lived in a neighbourhood that was being, or had been, noticeably gentrified? A) yes
B) no Were the changes beneficial for you personally? A) yes
B) no Do you think that the overall result of the gentrification process is positive, negative or depends on the changes that are being made? A) positive
B) negative
C) dependent Why are Lower-Income Individuals and Families Displaced? The Displacing Impacts of Gentrification The Fight against Gentrification Perspectives on Gentrification Conflicting Views Betancur's Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion Gentrification resurrection of run down urban areas to upper and middle classes Displacement of low income residents Neoliberalism is the root Segregation, Red lining, Planned shrinkage The Old Removal Period + The New Urban Renewal AIDS, Mass Criminalization, Collapse of Manufacturing, Obesity, Psychosocial stress, Dysfunction Ways to combat gentrification Restore :
Positive social infrastructure
Public spaces End:
forced displacment
criminilization of minors
and low SES Enforce: discrimination laws
lower income housing
community networks Community benefit agreements Advocacy without a CBA Developer's commitments are documented in CBA

Language of CBA is drafted by both developer and community

Community groups coordinate and share information

Community can enforce CBA Coordinated
Coalition Unions Environmental
Groups Religious Groups Neighbourhood Groups Other Groups City Developer CBA Development
Agreement Information Unions Religious
Groups Governance & Responsibilities
Middle East Community Development Corporation (ME-CDC)
Oversee items in CBA and manage education and trust funds
Middle East Community Benefits Agreement Council (MECBAC)
Govern ME-CDC
Volunteers and paid positions
Uphold community rights, hold developers accountable, organize community, collect feedback Neighbourhoods become more desirable
Increased number of grocery stores, more green-space, lowered crime rates
Property value increases
Low income residents feel pressure to sell Paper by John Betancur published in 2011 brought some of the more negative aspects to light
Exchange Value Resources = monetary assets of an individual and their ability to participate in the marketplace
Lower income populations create strong social fabrics to make up for what they lack in exchange value resources Shared Wealth
Developer and any new private retailer will donate 200 shares to ME-CDC
Quantum Capital will:
Manage portfolio
Provide classes on market finance
Help develop business plans for residents with entrepreneurial interests Low income populations and individuals fighting against urban revitalization
Trapped and forced to relocate
Case: Puerto Ricans living in Chicago Model 1: Gentrification as urban revival, cultural revitalization
Model 2: Gentrification as class war, forceful relocation Perspective 1: Gentrification in terms of competition, invasion, succession
Perspective 2: Gentrification in terms of human constructed forceful relocation "Gentrification may result from supply and demand pressures, unmediated by race or class, as market purists allege; or it may be a free choice, a blessing or a natural evolution. These descriptions, however, do not fit the experience of Latinos in Chicago." East Baltimore
Development Inc.
Community Churches United for Baltimore Jobs 50% of journeymen and apprentices will be residents 20% of workers will be apprentices or entry level Employees guaranteed benefit plan, health insurance, and certification training Clicker Question Deindustrialization Environmental Injustice Segregation Community Loss Additional Effects: Redlining Policy of concentrating population in some areas while withdrawing public and private resources from abandoned areas (Fullilove & Wallace, 2011) (Fullilove & Wallace, 2011) (Fullilove & Wallace, 2011) (Fullilove & Wallace, 2011) References (Fullilove,2001) (Fullilove,2001) Gentrification Goals: increase health, aesthetics and social cohesion
Not commonly thought of as negative
Not always intentional
Lower income residents do not experience the beneficial effects of gentrification Alicia Meconi, Jaclin Whaley, Tyson Sjaarda, Sumiah Abdulle, Kelsey Abbott, Omid Aghamirian (Fullilove & Wallace, 2011) (Abel & White, 2011) (Abel & White, 2011) (Abel & White, 2011) (Aka & Pope, 2009) (Aka & Pope, 2009) (Aka & Pope, 2009) Abel, T. D., & White, J. (2011). Skewed Riskscapes and Gentrified Inequities: Environmental Exposure Disparities in Seattle, Washington. American Journal of Public Health, 101(1), 246-254.

Aka, E. O., & Pope, C. (2009). Gentrification and Socioeconomic Impacts of Neighborhood Integration and Diversification in Atlanta, Georgia. National Social Science Perspectives Journal,
41(2), 1-16.

Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2010). The East Baltimore revitalizaiton initiative a case study of responsible development. Retrieved from Annie E. Casey Foundation Website:

Atkinson, R. (2002). Does Gentrification Help or Harm Urban Neighbourhoods? An Assessment of the Evidence-Base in the Context of the New Urban Agenda. ESRC Centre for
Neighbourhood Research. Research Paper, 1-26.

Betancur, J. (2011). Gentrification and community fabric in Chicago. 48(2). 383-406. Retrieved from

Formoso, D. D., Weber, R. R., & Atkins, M. M. (2010). Gentrification and urban children. 46(3), 395-412. Retrieved from

Fullilove, M. T. (2001). Root shock : The consequences of african ameican dispossession . Journal of Urban Health, 78(1), 72-80. Retrieved from

Fullilove, M. T., & Wallace, R. (2011). Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916-2010. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 83, 381-389.

Goetz , E. E. (2011). Gentrification in black and white: the racial impact of public housing demolition in american cities. UrbanStudies, 48(8), 1581-1604 .Retrieved from

Henig, J.R.(1981). Gentrification and displacement of the elderly: An empirical analysis. The Gerontologist,21(1),67-75. Retrievedfromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/75590187?accou

Madeline, J. (2007). Background on community benefits agreements: The process, the projects, and the prospects for the future. In A. Casey (Ed.), Community Benefits Agreememtns: The
Power, Practice, and Promise of a Responsible Redevelopment Tool, (pp. 10-20). Baltimore: Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Moore, E., & Nettles, M. (2010) Advancing community health through community benefits agreement: Four case studies and lessons for the redevelopment of the Oakland Army Base.
Oakland: Pacific Institute.

Murdie, R., &Teixeira, C. (2009). The impact of gentrificaiton on ethnic neighbourhoods in Toronto: A case study of little Portugal. Urban Studies Journal Limited, 48(1), 61-83.

Rothstein, A. (2008, August 28) Rebuilding the Middle East (neighbourhood in Baltimore). American City. Retrieved from http://americancity.org/daily/entry/rebuilding-the-middle-east

Satio, L. T. (2012) How low-income residents can benefit from urban development: the L.A. Live community benefits agreement. City and community, 11(2) 129-150.

The Middle East and Baltimore Redevelopment Action Coalition Community Benefits AgreementI (6.11.12 Draft)

Wolf-Powers, L (2010). Community benefits agreements and local government. Journal of the American Planning Associaiton, 76(2), 141-159. [D) For the marks] (Betancur, 2011) (Betancur, 2011) Adapted from: (Moore & Nettles, 2010) Environmental
Groups ( Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2010; Rothstein, 2008) ( Fullilove,2001) (Fullilove,2001) (Saito, 2012) (Janis, 2007, p. 10) (Betancur, 2011) Activity Activity Activity There is a company working to move into a city. We will consider this event from 3 different peoples perspectives, the CEO, a blue collar worker, and the developer You are a young blue-collar worker who has just moved out of your parent’s house for the first time. You have a good job at the local factory and are able to afford a home in a good neighbourhood. The new company though will shut down the old factory and will not give you a new job. With out such a high paying job there is little chance for you to keep paying your mortgage, what do you do? 0 As the developer you want to maximize profits by getting the cheapest lot. There are two area's available for development, a high income area with a high chance of resistance and a more expensive lot, or a low income area with with a cheaper lot and probably less resistance. Activity Activity You are the CEO of the company that wants to make the new facility. The problem is you do not live in the city right now. There are the same two neighbourhoods as before , the high income and low income neighbourhood, by the way cost is not an issue for you. What do you do ?
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