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Extended Project- Powertrains of Motor Vehicles

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by

Bryn Williams

on 26 April 2012

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Transcript of Extended Project- Powertrains of Motor Vehicles

Powertrains of Motor Vehicles:
A Guide to How and Why

The Engine
How it basically works
Intake-
(Suck)
Compression
Combustion
Exhaust
(Squeeze)
(Bang)
(Blow)
Layouts
Inline/ Straight/ Parallel
Flat/ Boxer
V, VR and W
Single
Rotary
2-Stroke
Simple
Thin
Long
Tall
Compact
Strong
~Smooth
More expensive
Seperate Rows
The Crossplane Crank
Very Low
Very Smooth
Naturally Balanced
Very Wide
Complex
Tiny
Powerful
Reliable
Thirsty
Seals
Burns Oil
2x Power
Very simple
Lightweight
Burn oil
Need care
Banned
Small only
No fluctuations
Useable Power
270° 180° 90° 180°
Heavier
Slight drop in Power
Ferrari
V8 Vantage
(Flatplane)
(Crossplane)
Sports
Muscle
Intake
Airbox
The Problem
Fuel = Power
Perfect (Stoichiometric)
Air/Fuel Ratio = 14.7:1
Fuel input limited by air
Air pulled in by pistons
Natural Aspiration (N/A)
Enormous
Cold Air
Denser Air
RAM air
NOS
Huge power boost
Needs Refilling
Supercharger
Turbocharger
Takes in more air
Roots
Screw
Pushes Air
Lots of heat
Compression- More boost
Steals Idling Power
Boost at Low/Med Revs
Instant Response
'Whine' sound
Uses power to run
Heavy
Boost at Med/High Revs
Large amounts of boost
'Whistle' sound
Turbo 'lag'
Turbo
Supercharger
Blow-Off Valve (BOV)
With BOV:
Pressure opens valve
Air vented out
Famous 'Psshhhh' sound
Sudden Throttle changes:
Pressure fluctuates
Huge buildup/flutter
Turbo damaged
Flutter
BOV Dump
Wastegate/Screamers
No Wastegate:
Turbo accelerates indefinitely
Wastegate:
Vents excess boost
Limits presssure
Screamer
Antilag & 2-step
Keeps turbo spinning off-throttle
Creates boost constantly
Eliminates Turbo lag
Large stress on turbo and exhaust
Twin-Charging
Combines turbo and supercharger advantages
for good boost all round
Intercooler
Cools air coming from Turbo/Supercharger.

-Remember, cold air is better!
Car
Rev Limit:
~8000rpm
Bike
Rev Limit:
~14000rpm
Full transcript