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Chapters 3-4 Theories Emphazing Personality and Social-Emoti
Transcript of Chapters 3-4 Theories Emphazing Personality and Social-Emoti
["Personality" theories explain "a relatively stable pattern of behaving, feeling, and thinking that distinguishes one person from another" (Davis & Pallido, 2003, p. 459)]
Ch. 3 Theories with a Major emphasis on Personality and Social-Emotional Development
Freud's 5 Phases of Psychosexual Development
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was one of the first theorists who thought human behavior could be scientifically measured. The time at which Freud's theories came about greatly affected their interpretation.
Phases of Psychosexual Development
1. Oral phase (0-3) bodily pleasure is derived from the mouth, i.e. sucking. This stage was not resolved healthily if an adult has oral fixations (eating, smoking, etc.)
2. Anal phase (1-3) control of defecating; potty training is happening at this age. An adult who is selfish or wasteful did not successfully resolve this stage.
3. Phallic phase (3-6) Superego-personal gender identification is being developed.
4. Latency phases (6-12) acceptance of reality; expanding non-sexual relationships
5. Puberty (12+) results in ability to have adult sexual intimacy
*Freud had many followers who continued his theoretical work including his daughter, Anna. She later developed a method of therapy called, Play Therapy.
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Erik Erikson (1902-1994) theorist who's work in considered very important in explaining human development.
Unlike Freud, Erikson focused on how healthy personalities develop.
8 crisis periods; Freud believed that play and social interactions at each age period developed one's psychological identity.
Also unlike Freud, Erikson believed that if a stage in a child's life was not appropriately met, their learned behaviors could be changed through psychoanalysis .
Ch. 4 Further Theoretical Perspectives on Personality and Social-Emotional Development
Presented by: Caitlyn Fielding & Dianne Hansen
Chapters 3-4 Theories Emphazing Personality and Social-Emotional Development
8 Crisis Stages
p. 49 Table 3.2
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3) more independent and making choices on their own
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6) children at this age become more assertive about what they want to do, and who they want to interact with, their involvement in creating games and making rules increases.
role play-superman, doctor, etc.
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12) good work produces satisfaction
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence) "What do I want to do in life?"
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood) "Who am I?"
7. Generative vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood)
parenting; mid-life crisis
8. Integrity vs. Despair (old age)
meaning of life
Freud's theory is considered to be more testable than Freud's theory.
Changing social conditions and times influence how and when each crisis is resolved.
Bowlby and Ainsworth
Thomas and Chess
"The major focus on this group of theorists has been on children's personality and social-emotional development during their first two years of life, especially on how interactions of parents and children affect early development." (Bergen, 2008, p. 54)
Bowlby (and Ainsworth's) Theory of Attachment
John Bowlby (1907-1990) Believed psychoanalysis put too much emphasis on a child's fantasy life, and not enough on actual experiences, separation, and traumatic events.
Ethology- adaptive nature of behaviors;
(1982) 4 Stages of Attachment
1. Pre-attachment (birth to 6 wks.)
2. Attachment in the making (6 wks. to 8 mo.)
3. Clear-cut attachment (6 mo. to 24 mo.)
4. Reciprocal relationship (18 mo. to 24 mo.)
Developed the idea of an "Internal Working Model" our expectations of social interactions that becomes a part of a child's personality.
In a study parents were asked to leave with a stranger and return shortly
65% of children showed themselves securely attached by reestablishing contact when a parent returned.
20% showed insecure-avoident attachment by staying away or not reestablishing contact w/ parent
13% protested or lashed out at their parents return
pg. 58 Differences in two-yr-old attachment
Greenspan's Theory of Emotional Development
Stanley Greenspan (1941-_) psychiatrist, theorist, and teacher who has developed his own theory of emotional development in early childhood based on psychoanalytic theory, attachment theory, and brain development research.
Greenspan believed that, "play is the vehicle for promoting emotional organization".
4 Stages of Emotional Organization/ 6 milestones
1. Engagement (3 wks. until 8 mo.) infants learn to share attention, relate to others, show positive emotion.
-2 milestones self-regulation and intimacy.
2. Two-way Communication (6-8 mo.)infants signal their needs, understand intentions, and communicate.
-1 milestone: two-way communication.
3. Shared Meanings (18-36 mo.) Children learn to relate their behaviors, sensations, and gestures to the world, pretend play, and use language to communicate. -2 milestones: complex communication and emtional ideas.
4. Emotional Thinking (3-6 yrs) children can organize experiences and ideas, make connections, gain understanding of themselves and their emotions, and develop categories of experience. 1 milestone: emotional thinking.
*Greenspan designed Developmental Individual Difference Relationship Model/Floor Time (adult/child play time)
***Emotional organization must occur before cognitive organization!***
Thomas and Chess's Temperament Theory
Alexander Thomas (1914-2003) and Stella Chess (1914-_) were a married team of professors who believed that a child's mother was not the primary influence on a child's behavioral and emotional problems. They did a 30 year, long term study on 141 two-year-olds. They used their study's data to develop 9 dimensions which express indv. behavior responses.
level and extent of motor activity
regularity of basic functions
withdrawal or acceptance of new stimuli
adaptability to environmental changes
sensitivity level to stimuli
energy intensity of responses
general mood or disposition
attention span and persistence in activity
3 Major Temperament Types
p. 64 Table 4.1
1. 40% were labeled "easy"; positive in mood and regular in basic functions
2. 10% were labeled "difficult"; negative in mood, irregular in sleeping and eating patterns, slow to adapt, aggressive
3. 15% were labeled "slow to warm up" low activity and reaction levels, slow to adapt
35% of the 141 children did not fit into one category.
**Teachers should understand their student's temperament, because this can greatly affect their learning ability and interaction with other students.
Bandura's Social-Cognitive /Self-Efficacy Theory
Albert Bandura (1925-_) believes that
is a modeled/learned behavior. Bandura had a huge impact on how our society uses models in teaching a child-rearing. Bandura believed that models influence children's behaviors.
Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment
children who observed aggressive conditions, whether with live models, films of models, or cartoon characters exhibited more aggressive behavior then children who did not see such models.
model of "reciprocal determinism"-there are 3 aspects that influence a person's social learning process. The person, the person's behavior, and the person's surrounding environment.
4 things that effect how a person interprets models or their environment; attention (attention span), retention (retaining info.), motor reproduction (recalling info.), and motivation (value of the info.).
p. 68 Table 4.2
Bandura's Theory of a Human Agency
All people are agents who are proactively engaged in their own development.