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Ethos Pathos Logos Prezi

A quick overview of Ethos, Pathos and Logos.

Angela Pidgeon

on 6 February 2018

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Transcript of Ethos Pathos Logos Prezi

[How to Win an Argument]
No, not that way...
No, not this way either...
Never ever this way...
Yes! Use your words!
That won't work...
Rhetoric is so appealing!
= the author is credible.
Ethical Appeals- (ethos)
According to Aristotle, ethos is persuasion through convincing the audience of one’s moral character. Ethical appeals are attempts by the speaker/writer to make connections to the audience by appearing knowledgeable, reasonable, ethical, etc. A writer is able to make an effective argument only when readers have no reason to doubt the writer’s character on a given topic. Writers who fail to acknowledge other points of view, exaggerate, or assume a tone of disrespect have difficulty making ethical appeals to readers.

Appeals to ethos may include the following:

• convincing the audience that the writer is benevolent and trustworthy
• demonstrating that the writer/speaker carefully conducted research
• conveying knowledge of and respect for the audience

• persuading the audience that the writer/speaker is reliable and knowledgeable
• using first person plural pronouns (“we” and “us”) to establish a relationship with the audience
• Biblical allusions; other allusions that demonstrate the speaker’s education and intelligence
Find The ETHOS!
"As your doctor, I have to tell you, that if you don't stop smoking, you will die."
Now - look at the example on your own paper and find the ethos. Discuss with a partner near you.
= appeals to the EMOTIONS of the audience
Emotional Appeals- (pathos)
Aristotle defined pathos (persuasion by means of emotional appeal) as "putting the hearer into a certain frame of mind.” Emotional appeals reach the reader by activating his/her emotions. Often writers make emotional appeals by including sensory details, especially imagery. Calling upon the reader’s pleasant memories, nostalgia, anger, or fear are frequent emotional appeals found in argumentative texts. The presence of “emotionally charged words” (references to religious doctrine or political ideas) in an argumentative text represents an attempt at an appeal to pathos.

Find The PATHOS!
"As your doctor, I have to tell you, that if you don't stop smoking, you will die."

Now, examine the example on your handout and discuss with a partner the effect of the pathos.
= rational argument
Logical Appeals- (logos)
Aristotle defined logos as argument from reason. Examples of logical appeals include the use of evidence, facts and figures, references to current events, and statistics. In order to persuade the audience, the writer/speaker must present reputable, authoritative sources that can stand up to counterargument.

Find The LOGOS!
"As your doctor, I have to tell you, that if you don't stop smoking, you will die."

Now, again, look at the example on your handout, and analyze the logos.
"Comrades!" he cried. "You do not imagine, I hope, that we pigs are doing
this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege? Many of us actually dislike
milk and apples. I dislike them myself. Our sole object in taking these
things is to preserve our health. Milk and apples (this has been proved by
Science, comrades) contain substances absolutely necessary to the
well-being of a pig. We pigs are brainworkers. The whole management and
organisation of this farm depend on us. Day and night we are watching over
your welfare. It is for YOUR sake that we drink that milk and eat those
apples. Do you know what would happen if we pigs failed in our duty? Jones
would come back! Yes, Jones would come back! Surely, comrades," cried
Squealer almost pleadingly, skipping from side to side and whisking his
tail, "surely there is no one among you who wants to see Jones come back?"
BOSTON LEGAL CLIP - double click the link - a new window will open to play video.
If it will not play - logon with Ms. Pidgeon's logon to English Companion Ning - apidgeon@saisd.org hb102673
Let's listen to some
arguments and evaluate
the ethos/pathos/logos.
RHETORIC (Definition Reminder)
Examples of appeals to pathos may include the following:
• language that involves the senses and heightens emotional responses
• references to the reader’s or the listeners’ prejudices
• personal anecdote (short and amusing or interesting account depicting a real incident or person)
• appeals to the audience’s physical, psychological, or social needs
• figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole)
• connotative language
• humor
• building emotional ties with the audience
• Biblical allusions
Appeals to logos may include the following:
• inductive (from specific to general) or deductive (from general to specific) reasoning
• allusions to history, great literature, or mythology
• expert testimony (including interviews)
• evidence, facts
• observations by authorities or reputable sources
• government research , statistics, surveys, polls, tables, graphs, reports
• theorizing of cause and effect
• arguing that something meets a given definition

• Syllogism (in formal logic, a structure of deductive logic in which correctly formed major and minor premises lead to a necessary conclusion):

All human beings are mortal.
Socrates is a human being.
Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

• a logical proposition consisting of a claim + a warrant (Toulmin argument)

claim =a statement that asserts a belief or truth (in arguments, most claims require supporting evidence)

warrant = the expressed or implied statement that establishes the logical connection between claim and its supporting reason

Claim Don’t eat that mushroom; Reason It’s poisonous.
Warrant What is poisonous should not be eaten.

• “Reputable” and “authoritative” sources are key considerations in constructing an effective appeal to logos. The New York Times, for example, may carry more weight perhaps than People magazine with some audiences. (Note also may use qualifying terms like: may, perhaps, some.)
Full transcript