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The Digestive System

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jake melton

on 3 October 2014

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Transcript of The Digestive System

The Digestive System
-The first step of the digestive
system is the mouth.
-Within the mouth are the tongue
and teeth, which help with
breaking the food down into
digestible sized pieces.
Salivary Glands
Pharynx & Esophagus
-The pharynx permits passage from the mouth and then into the esophagus.
-The esophagus transports it down into the stomach.
-The salivary glands secrete saliva, which in turn keep both the mouth and the digestive system wet.
-The salivary glands secrete amylase which plays an important role in the decomposing of maltose and starch.
The glands:
-Parotid glands
-Submandibular glands
-Sublingual glands

Small Intestine
-The small intestines are a long tube, loosely coiled in the abdomen (spread out, it would be more than 20 feet long).
-The small intestines break down food by using enzymes released by the pancreas, and bile from the liver.
-Food enters as a semi solid consistency, and leaves as a liquid.
-The inside of the small intestines are not smooth like the large intestines, it has villi on the sides.
The pancreas has three main jobs:
- Producing hormones, that regulate blood sugar levels.
- Producing enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
- Producing sodium bicarbonate that neutralizes stomach acid so that these enzymes can do there job.
-The stomach is a sac-like organ with strong muscular walls.
-The stomach makes acids and enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food.
-When food leaves the stomach, it is the consistency of a liquid or paste.
-The liver is the second largest organ in the body.
-It produces a liquid known as bile. -Bile is held in an organ below the liver called the gallbladder.
Large Intestines
The large intestines are made up of four parts:
-The ascending colon
-Transverse colon
-Descending colon
-Sigmoid colon

-The large intestines extract water from the food, and it turns the food into feces.
-It does not have villi like the small intestines.

The large intestine's tube has four layers:
-Mucosa, a smooth tissue on the innermost layer.
-The next layer out is a layer of blood vessels and nerves.
-Muscularis is the next layer, it is what contracts and moves the large intestines.
-Serosa, the last layer, is thin and slick to keep the organ safe from friction with other organs.
The rectum gets stool from the large intestines. Then it sends a message to the brain saying the content can be released. After that the brain decides if it wants to release it or not. If so the rectum contracts and the content is released.
-The anus tells you if the content is a solid, liquid, or gas.
-It is always closed, unless there is stool in the rectum.
-It regulates how fast the stool comes out.
-Villi are bumps
covered with cells that absorb nutrients.
-After they absorb the nutrients they put it in to the blood stream.
The structure of the digestive system
takes in vitamins, nutrients and minerals, and turns it into energy. Then disposes the leftovers.
You may think that our digestive system is perfect, but its not. Digestion problems include:
Created by: Griffin Hokanson, Natalie Mccarty, Brittany Bosworth, and Jacob Melton
Mechanical VS Chemical Digestion
Mechanical digestion is breaking the food down physically by chewing with your mouth. Chemical digestion is breaking down food with chemicals like saliva from the salivary glands.
-Salivary glands
-Small intestines
-Large intestines
-Rounded food, that is at the point of being swallowed.
A piece of digestible sized food is called a bolus.
Common digestive disorders
-Ulcerative Colitis
Full transcript