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Move to Independence: Neo-Colonialism? 370 Fall13
Transcript of Move to Independence: Neo-Colonialism? 370 Fall13
Why Independence? Why the 1950's?
Emergence of subaltern critique of colonialism that shaped the ideas and policies of the new leaders:
"Things Fall Apart" 1958
"The Underdevelopment of Africa"
"United States of Africa"
What does Rodney argue?
How did Nkrumah envision the future of Ghana?
1) political freedom
"political freedom dictates the pace of economic and social progress"
What happened? Who were the actors/ key players in Ghana's political and economic development?
Is this Neo-Colonialism?
Legacy of Colonialism:
--changes in religious beliefs
--undemocratic political systems
--political parties/trade unions
--Recruited in European Armies
"Respect the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they will wish to see sovereign rights of self-government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them"
Churchill & Roosevelt
"Atlantic Charter" 1941
why fighting for Europe & America's freedom, when don't have our own?
--Higher education & training in Europe
India & Pakistan Independence 1947
--Nationalist Parties-- push for political Independence
Egypt - 1952
--1st Sub-Saharan- Ghana- 1957
most in the 1960s
Afterward- 6 colonies remained:
--British -- Long Transitions
--Belgium-- gave 6 months to Congo to transition
--Portuguese/Settlers--- held onto colonies
--african leaders jailed
--assistance from the Soviet Union
Part of Pan-Africanist Movement
--Pan African Congress in Europe starts in 1900 discussing political independence
--Africa can prosper economically & politically if united
2) Economic Freedom:
"The whole policy of the colonizer is to keep the native...economically dependent"
3) African Socialism
--principles of egalitarianism, equal opportunities
--destruction of artificial boundaries of colonialism
Organization for African Unity
--Guidelines for strong relations
--inviolability of boundaries
--non-interference in domestic affairs
How to severe ties to former colonial powers?
“The colonial powers and their imperialist allies are beginning to advance a new, subtle theory and a disguised one, at that- to safeguard their position in Africa and to beguile and bamboozle the Africans. They are prepared to grant political independence but, at the same time, they are also planning to continue to dominate the African territories in the economic field by establishing control over the economic life of the newly independent African countries. There is no difference between political imperialism and economic imperialism”