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Move to Independence: Neo-Colonialism? 370 Fall13

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Julie Jenkins

on 11 October 2013

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Transcript of Move to Independence: Neo-Colonialism? 370 Fall13

Movement to Independence or Neo-Colonialism?
Why Independence? Why the 1950's?
-WWII (39-45)
Emergence of subaltern critique of colonialism that shaped the ideas and policies of the new leaders:
Chinua Achebe
"Things Fall Apart" 1958
Walter Rodney
"The Underdevelopment of Africa"
1972
Kwame Nkrumah
1909-1972
"United States of Africa"
What does Rodney argue?
How did Nkrumah envision the future of Ghana?
1) political freedom
"political freedom dictates the pace of economic and social progress"
What happened? Who were the actors/ key players in Ghana's political and economic development?

Is this Neo-Colonialism?
Legacy of Colonialism:
--urbanization
--increased education
--changes in religious beliefs
--undemocratic political systems
--'elite'
--single exports
--political parties/trade unions
--Recruited in European Armies
"Respect the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they will wish to see sovereign rights of self-government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them"
Churchill & Roosevelt
"Atlantic Charter" 1941
why fighting for Europe & America's freedom, when don't have our own?
--Higher education & training in Europe
India & Pakistan Independence 1947
--Nationalist Parties-- push for political Independence
Libya -1951
Egypt - 1952
--1st Sub-Saharan- Ghana- 1957
most in the 1960s

Afterward- 6 colonies remained:
--Angola
--Mozambique
--Namibia
--Zimbabwe
--Guinea Bissau
--South Africa


Recap:
--British -- Long Transitions
--French-- "Francafique"
--Belgium-- gave 6 months to Congo to transition
--Portuguese/Settlers--- held onto colonies
--exclusionary practices
--african leaders jailed
--liberation movements
--assistance from the Soviet Union

Part of Pan-Africanist Movement
--Pan African Congress in Europe starts in 1900 discussing political independence
--Africa can prosper economically & politically if united
2) Economic Freedom:
"The whole policy of the colonizer is to keep the native...economically dependent"
3) African Socialism
--principles of egalitarianism, equal opportunities
4) Pan-Africanism
--destruction of artificial boundaries of colonialism
Organization for African Unity
1963
--Guidelines for strong relations
--inviolability of boundaries
--non-interference in domestic affairs
How to severe ties to former colonial powers?
“The colonial powers and their imperialist allies are beginning to advance a new, subtle theory and a disguised one, at that- to safeguard their position in Africa and to beguile and bamboozle the Africans. They are prepared to grant political independence but, at the same time, they are also planning to continue to dominate the African territories in the economic field by establishing control over the economic life of the newly independent African countries. There is no difference between political imperialism and economic imperialism”
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