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Anthropology Tonga

on 4 June 2013

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Transcript of Tonga

Politics in Tonga "The Friendly Islands" Tonga Sources Tongan Civil War 1839-1845
Only monarchy in the Pacific
Constitution 1875 Constitutional Monarchy Democratic constitution
Strike 2006
November 2009, Constitutional Review Reform First popular elect vote held in 2010 Politics Today King: George Tupou VI
Prime Minister: Siale’ataongo Tu’ivankano
Party – Independent
Three main parts: Parliament, Judiciary, and Executive Current ha’a tu’I (kings)
hou’eiki (chiefs)
ha’amatapule (talking chiefs)
kau tu’a (commoners)
1875 constitution eliminated the title of chiefs and created nobles Social Stratification Cook’s Map Captain Cook visits Tonga in 1773 and 1777, nicknames islands “The Friendly Islands.”
1845 – Polynesian island groups became united as the Kingdom of Tonga
First King of the now united kingdom was George Tupou I
King George Tupou I established the constitutional monarchy in 1875 History Continued… First settled between 500-3000 BC by Lapita people
950 AD – Rulers begin creating a hierarchal system of monarchy
By the 12th century, Tu’i Tonga were known across the Pacific Islands
Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire become 1st Europeans to touchdown in Tonga in 1616
1643 Abel Tasman becomes 1st European to arrive on the main island History Geography East of Australia
176 islands
36 Inhabited
Main Island of Tonga is Tongatapu
Capital of Tonga is Nuku’alofa
Polynesian descent Background Information Geography Religion George Tapou I was the first to embrace Christianity Under Tongan Constitution there was complete freedom of religion
High unified collection beliefs Dance and Religion Extremely important to religious ceremonies Mafana
Poetry and scripture Modern Tonga Today there are about 115,000 people living on 36 inhabited islands
It is a strict conservative, Christian country
Untouched by immigration
Efficient legal system
Social rank Music in Tonga Traditional Music Royal and Noble weddings and funerals
Ancient Dance
Radio Tonga
Church Hymns Ula
Me'etu'upaki The National Anthem Lack of skilled workers
Most workers go overseas
Reduced tourism
Fewer government returns Work Force In debt to China
Have to import almost everything
Imports exceed exports Tonga relies on foreign aid More protests for democracy
Riots that burned businesses
Tonga in debt even more Corruption Key Crops
30% of workforce in agriculture
Second most important part of Tonga’s economy is tourism Economy Key Crops
30% of workforce in agriculture
Second most important part of Tonga’s economy is tourism Economy Instruments Voice
Nose Flute
Slit Drum English:
Oh almighty God above
Thou art our lord and sure defense
As your people, we trust thee
And our Tonga thou dost love
Hear our prayer for thou unseen
We know that thou hath blessed our land
Grant our earnest supplication
And save our king Tupou. Surrounding the Pro-Democracy... Not much new music
Western Influence
Radio Tonga - Western Hits
National Anthem A government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections
The pro democracy movement is an attempt to gain a voice for the people and to give them in a say
Difficult to overthrow a constitutional monarchy Constitutional monarchy VS democracy Talk of democracy formed into a series of formal conferences in 1992, 1998, and 1999

All of them dismissed by government.

Begin to get more organized in 2002 and reach out to local newspapers and periodicals to gain public support.

It is an attempt to overthrow the constitutional monarchy currently in place and implement a democracy. The Pro Democracy Movement The Pro Democracy Movement today is still working to overthrow the constitutional monarchy in place

Currently a political party in Tonga called the HRDM (Human Rights and Democracy Movement)

Each election year the HRDM party tries to win the majority of the seats in the Legislative Assembly of Tonga
  The Pro Democracy Movement Today On Thursday 16 November 2006, riots erupted in Nuku'alofa, the capital of the tiny kingdom of Tonga.

After a pro-democracy march ended outside parliament, a crowd (2,000-3,000) took to the streets.

80% of the Central Business District of Nuku'alofa destroyed

150 Australian and New Zealand peacekeepers arrived to enforce martial law in Nuku'alofa

Rioting on Thursday left eight people dead Pro Democracy Riots Wren Corbin, Garret Holaday, Mark Jenson, Norah Owings, Mike Salgado, Melissa Simpson The Pro-Democracy Movement Background and History Traditional Stratification The Pro-Democracy Movement Economics in Tonga Happy Tonga
Independence Day!!! "Ancient Sitting Dance - 'Otuhaka." Nuama.org of Moana. N.p., 09 June 2010. Web. 03 June 2013.
Carmody, Brendan. "Tonga Religious Life In The Twentieth Century. By Elizabeth Colson." Heythrop Journal 52.5 (2011): 907. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 June 2013.
Clark, Byron. "FightBack." FightBack. N.p., 21 Apr. 2012. Web. 02 June 2013.
“Constitutional Monarchy.” Palace Office. Tongan Monarchy, 2013. Web. 30 May 2013.Cooper, Amy.
"Countries and Their Cultures." Tongan Americans. N.p., 2013. Web. 01 June 2013."Countries and Their Cultures." Culture of Tonga. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 June 2013. <http://www.everyculture.com/To-Z/Tonga.html>.
Filihia, Meredith. "Shamanism In Tonga: An Assessment." Journal Of The Polynesian Society 117.4 (2008): 383-397. Academic Search Premier. Web. 3 June 2013.
"History of Nations." History of Tonga. N.P., 2004. Web. 26 May 2013 Kerry E. James. Pacific Affairs , Vol. 67, No. 2 (Summer, 1994),pp. 242-263Langa’oi, Palenitina. “The Roots of Instability: Administrative and Political Reform in Tonga.” Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University. (2009) Web. 30 May 2013.
Martin, Ged. "Island Kingdom: Tonga Ancient And Modern (Revised Edition)." British Review Of New Zealand Studies 14.(2003): 193-194. Academic Search Premier. Web. 3 June 2013.
"Me'etu'upaki." YouTube. YouTube, 09 Mar. 2011. Web. 02 June 2013.
"National Anthems." National Anthems Atom. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 June 2013.
"'Otuhaka Opening." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Mar. 2011. Web. 03 June 2013.
Small, Cathy A., and David L. Dixon. "Migration Information Source - Tonga: Migration and the Homeland." The Migration Information Source. Migration Policy Institute, Feb. 2004. Web. 02 June 2013.
"The Quest For Constitutional Reform In Tonga." Journal Of Pacific History 40.1 (2005): 91-104. Religion and Philosophy Collection. Web. 31 May 2013.
"Tonga - Fun Facts and Information." Tonga - Fun Facts and Information. Funtrivia.com, 2006. Web. 26 May 2013.
“Tonga – Politics, government, and taxation.” Encyclopedia of the Nations. Web. 30 May 2013.
"Tonga." Tonga. Triposo, n.d. Web. 02 June 2013.
"Tongan Musical Instruments." Tongan Musical Instruments. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 June 2013.
“Tongan Profile.” BBC News Asia-Pacific, 19 March 2012. Web. 20 May 2013.YouTube.
YouTube. YouTube, 21 July 2011. Web. 03 June 2013.
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