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The Family Tree of Theories of Criminology
Transcript of The Family Tree of Theories of Criminology
The Family Tree for the Theories of Criminology
The criminal law and the criminal justice system are means of defending and preserving the capitalist system.
Criminal law and the criminal justice system are instruments for controlling the lower class.
Crime is a function of relative deprivation; criminals prey on the poor.
Criminality is a product of abnormal biological and/or psychological traits.
This focuses on the psychological aspects of crime, including the associations among intelligence, personality, learning, and criminal behavior.
Psychological Trait Theory
People who have a high arousal level seek stimuli in their environment to maintain their preferred level of arousal. These stimuli are often associated with violence and aggression.
Behavior is a product of interacting biological and environmental events.
Gender differences in crime can be explained because of economic power (one-earner families) and parental control (paternalistic). In other words, girls are controlled more closely than boys in male-dominated homes.
Power Control Theory
A correctional method that makes offenders confront their misdeeds and experience shame because of it. After that they can be re-included into society.
Peace and humanism can reduce crime and conflict resolution strategies can work.
Crime is a function of diet, vitamin intake, hormonal imbalance, or food allergies.
As the human race has evolved, traits and characteristics have become ingrained.
Criminal traits and predispositions are inherited
Criminals and delinquents often suffer brain impairment, as measured by the EEG.
The development of the personality early in childhood influences a person's behavior for the rest of their life.
Individual reasoning processes influence a person's behavior.
People commit crime when they model their behavior after others they see being rewarded for similar acts.
The ability to bond emotionally to another person has important lasting psychological implications that last throughout life.
Intelligence is not inherited but is a product of the environment, and does not correlate to criminal behavior.
Intelligence is determined by genetics and that low intelligence is linked to criminal behavior.
Human behavior is a product of social, biological, psychological, or economic forces.
Crime is a function of a decision-making process where the person weighs the costs and benefits of preforming an illegal act before the do it.
Rational Choice Theory
If the probability of arrest, conviction, and sanctioning increases, crime rates should decline.
Crime is a function of environmental, socialization, physical, and psychological factors. When people are lacking in these areas during human development, they have an increase risk for crime.
These theories look at the changes in a criminal's offending patterns over their life-time.
Life Course Theory
There are multiple paths to crime.
Criminal behavior is controlled by a master trait that is present at birth or soon after (which is present throughout a person's lifetime).
Latent Trait Theory
Community and personal factors interact to strengthen or weaken social bonds.
Social Development Model
Criminals go through lifestyle changes during their criminal career.
As people grow older, the factors that influence them to commit crime change.
A person’s “control ratio” influences his or her behavior.
Control Balance Theory
Individuals exposed to coercive environments develop social and psychological problems that increase their probability of becoming a criminal.
Differential Coercion Theory
Crime and criminality are separate concepts. People choose to commit crime when they lack self-control.
General Theory of Crime
People with antisocial potential are at risk to commit antisocial acts.
Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory (ICAP)
People begin to commit criminal activities at different points in their lives.
Life Course Persistent/ Adolescent Limited
People are a product of their upbringing. People who are influenced by deviant behavior, are more likely to become deviant.
Social Process Theory
People commit crime when the forces that bind them to society are weakened or broken.
Social Control Theory
Human behavior is modeled through observation of human social interactions. Interactions that are rewarded are copied, while those that are punished are avoided.
Social Learning Theory
Social Reaction Theory
Children learn ways of neutralizing moral restraints and periodically drift in and out of criminal behavior patterns.
People learn to commit crime from exposure to antisocial behavior.
Differential Association Theory
Criminal behavior depends on a person’s experiences with rewards for conventional behaviors and punishment for deviant ones.
Differential Reinforcement Theory
A person’s bond to society prevents them from violating social rules.
Hirschi's Control Theory
People become criminals when significant members of society label them as criminals (and they accept those labels).
Disadvantaged economic class position is the primary cause of crime.
Social Structure Theory
Crime is a function of the conflict between people’s goals and the means available to obtain them.
Combines elements of both Strain Theory and Social Disorganization Theory.
Cultural Deviance Theory
This focuses on the conditions within the environment that affect crime rates.
Social Disorganization Theory
Crime is a product of transitional neighborhoods that produce social disorganization and conflict.
Shaw and McKay’s Concentric Zones Theory
The conflicts and problems the social life and community influence the crime rate.
Social Ecology Theory
Strain causes crime in the absence of adequate coping mechanisms.
General Strain Theory
The base of the American lifestyle is to acquire wealth and material goods.
Institutional Anomie Theory
There are people who want the goals of society, but lack the means to attain them, so they gain them through crime.
When lowerclass boys fail to achieve middle-class success it causes them to join gangs because of their status frustration.
Cohen’s Theory of Delinquent Gangs
People who follow the street rules of lower-class life find themselves in conflict with the dominant culture.
Miller’s Focal Concern Theory
When Youth do not have access to conventional opportunities, it causes them to join gangs.
Cloward and Ohlin’s Theory of Opportunity
THEORIES OF CRIMINOLOGY