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Transcript of Learning Disabilities
Erika Hansen & Ashley Vlasak
ED253: Introduction to Learning Disabilities
November 11, 2014
Federal Operational Definition
The student does not achieve at an appropriate age, grade or ability level in one or more specific areas; and
A severe discrepancy exists between achievement and intellectual ability in at least one of the following areas
A problem receiving and/or expressing information in academic tasks and skills. There is a significant difference between potential and achievement ability in one or more of the areas, memory, language, and perception. Individual usually has average to above average intelligence and does not include/is not motor, visual, hearing disability, emotional disturbance, mental retardation, environmental, cultural, and economic disadvantages.
Students with learning disabilities have average intelligence, but have problems in the following areas:
& RELATED ADHD RESEARCH
Students with learning disabilities may also struggle with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Learning disabilities may be manifested with problems in attention and concentration.
Inability to sustain attention at an age appropriate level and the failure to modulate the arousal of impulses.
A.D.H.D.- Predominantly Inattentive
A.D.H.D.- Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
Not enough Dopamine and Norepinephrine (neurotransmitters) gets delivered to the brain
Assessments: significant discrepancy
Evidence of Response to Scientific-Based Interventions
Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses
-Gather data from a variety of sources
-Need both strengths and weaknesses in order to be diagnosed with LD
Evidence of disorder in basic psychological processes
Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses
The Pre-Referral Process
General Education setting
Monitor all students
Response to Intervention (RTI):
Multi-tiered Support Systems (MTSS)
Tier 1: Universal prevention (80%)
Tier 2: Targeted intervention (15-20%)
Tier 3: Intensive intervention (5-10%)
After Tier 3: If a student fails to respond, then further examination will occur by a child study team
Evaluated by Multidisciplinary Evaluation Team (MET)
Evaluate, test, & observe
Eligibility recommendation is needed for Special Education Services
Meeting is held at the end of the process, but prior to the IEPT to review results and determine eligibility
Parents must be informed and invited to the meeting
Whether student qualifies or not
: Special Education student in General Education setting all day
: special ed. provider works with general ed. teacher "behind the scenes"
: special ed. provider works directly with special ed. student in general ed. setting
Student with special ed. needs leaves general ed. classroom for a portion of the day in order to receive intensive instruction
Student with special ed. needs to be in a special ed. classroom for more than 50% and up to 100%
"Separate School" , students with severe disabilities who need intensive programming throughout the school day/week
Most restrictive setting
Receive services on a 24/7 basis
Definition of Learning Disabilities Under IDEA 2004
What is a learning disability?
"The term 'specific learning disability' means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations."
"Such term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia."
"Such term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage."
Types of Perception
Problems with Perception
Cognitive strategies of learning
perception, memory, figureground, spatial
perception, memory, comprehension, figureground
listening, speaking, vocabulary
phonemic awareness, decoding, fluency, and comprehension
perception, memory, pre-numbered skills, calculation, reasoning, application
auditory/phonetic recognition, visual memory, word structures (syllables, affixes)
gross/fine motor skills, grip, posture, copying, formations, legibility, handwriting/spelling/writing for communication
perseveration, reversals, transpositions
establishing and maintaining relationships, "small talk", not knowing how to act, talk in social situations
Students may struggle with...
Weak attention and concentration
Has difficulty starting and staying on topic
Fails to attend to detail; forgetful
Blurts out responses
Poor at taking turns
Rushes through work
Doesn't pay attention to quality
Leaves seat frequently
Treatment Options for ADHD
Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta, Focalin, Vyvance
Psychostimulants lengthen attention spans, control impulsivity, decrease distractibility and motor activity, and improve visual-motor integration.
Counseling, cognitive behavior modification, relaxation techniques
Feingold: eliminate sugars, artificial flavors/colors, and preservatives
Learning disabilities can be manifested in many different ways.
As teachers, it is essential to keep in mind that our students will learn best in different ways. We must address a variety of needs, strengths, and preferences in the classroom.