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Learning Disabilities

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Erika Hansen

on 11 December 2014

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Transcript of Learning Disabilities

Learning Disabilities
Erika Hansen & Ashley Vlasak
ED253: Introduction to Learning Disabilities
November 11, 2014

Federal Operational Definition
The student does not achieve at an appropriate age, grade or ability level in one or more specific areas; and
A severe discrepancy exists between achievement and intellectual ability in at least one of the following areas
Listening Comprehension
Oral Expression
Written Expression
Reading Skills
Reading Comprehension
Reading Fluency
Math Calculation
Math Reasoning

Layperson’s Definition
A problem receiving and/or expressing information in academic tasks and skills. There is a significant difference between potential and achievement ability in one or more of the areas, memory, language, and perception. Individual usually has average to above average intelligence and does not include/is not motor, visual, hearing disability, emotional disturbance, mental retardation, environmental, cultural, and economic disadvantages.
Students with learning disabilities have average intelligence, but have problems in the following areas:
-Social Skills

Students with learning disabilities may also struggle with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Learning disabilities may be manifested with problems in attention and concentration.
Inability to sustain attention at an age appropriate level and the failure to modulate the arousal of impulses.
Basic Types:
A.D.H.D.- Predominantly Inattentive
A.D.H.D.- Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive
A.D.H.D.- Combined
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
Not enough Dopamine and Norepinephrine (neurotransmitters) gets delivered to the brain
Assessments: significant discrepancy
-Achievement (performance)
-Ability (IQ)

Evidence of Response to Scientific-Based Interventions

Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses
-Gather data from a variety of sources
-Need both strengths and weaknesses in order to be diagnosed with LD

Evidence of disorder in basic psychological processes
Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses
The Pre-Referral Process
General Education setting
Gather data
Monitor all students
Response to Intervention (RTI):
Multi-tiered Support Systems (MTSS)
Tier 1: Universal prevention (80%)
Tier 2: Targeted intervention (15-20%)
Tier 3: Intensive intervention (5-10%)
After Tier 3: If a student fails to respond, then further examination will occur by a child study team
Referral Process
Available Services
Evaluated by Multidisciplinary Evaluation Team (MET)
Evaluate, test, & observe
Eligibility recommendation is needed for Special Education Services
Meeting is held at the end of the process, but prior to the IEPT to review results and determine eligibility
Parents must be informed and invited to the meeting
Whether student qualifies or not
Full Inclusion
: Special Education student in General Education setting all day
Indirect Services
: special ed. provider works with general ed. teacher "behind the scenes"
Direct Services
: special ed. provider works directly with special ed. student in general ed. setting
Resource Room
Student with special ed. needs leaves general ed. classroom for a portion of the day in order to receive intensive instruction
Available Services
Categorical Classroom
Student with special ed. needs to be in a special ed. classroom for more than 50% and up to 100%
Day School
"Separate School" , students with severe disabilities who need intensive programming throughout the school day/week
Residential School
Most restrictive setting
Receive services on a 24/7 basis
Definition of Learning Disabilities Under IDEA 2004
What is a learning disability?
"The term 'specific learning disability' means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations."
"Such term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia."
Exclusionary Clause
"Such term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage."
Types of Perception
Problems with Perception
Spatial awareness
Time orientation
Cognitive strategies of learning
Visual skills:
perception, memory, figureground, spatial
Auditory skills:
perception, memory, comprehension, figureground
Oral skills:
listening, speaking, vocabulary
Reading skills:
phonemic awareness, decoding, fluency, and comprehension
Math skills:
perception, memory, pre-numbered skills, calculation, reasoning, application
Spelling skills:
auditory/phonetic recognition, visual memory, word structures (syllables, affixes)
gross/fine motor skills, grip, posture, copying, formations, legibility, handwriting/spelling/writing for communication
Perceptual Manifestations:
perseveration, reversals, transpositions
Social Skills:
establishing and maintaining relationships, "small talk", not knowing how to act, talk in social situations
Students may struggle with...
Weak attention and concentration
Has difficulty starting and staying on topic
Fails to attend to detail; forgetful
Blurts out responses
Poor at taking turns
Rushes through work
Doesn't pay attention to quality
Leaves seat frequently
Talks excessively
Treatment Options for ADHD
Drugs/Medication Therapy
Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta, Focalin, Vyvance
Psychostimulants lengthen attention spans, control impulsivity, decrease distractibility and motor activity, and improve visual-motor integration.
Non-Psychostimulants (Strattera)
Behavioral Programming
Counseling, cognitive behavior modification, relaxation techniques
Feingold: eliminate sugars, artificial flavors/colors, and preservatives
Learning disabilities can be manifested in many different ways.

As teachers, it is essential to keep in mind that our students will learn best in different ways. We must address a variety of needs, strengths, and preferences in the classroom.
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