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Mini CNC Plotter

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by

Nour Mohammad

on 6 April 2016

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Transcript of Mini CNC Plotter

Conclusion
Discussion
Mini CNC Plotter

Done By:

Nour Abu El-enein
Nour Atieh
Baraa Youssef

What is a CNC?
The term “CNC” is a generic term which can be used to describe many types of device, this would include plotters, vinyl cutters, 3D printers, milling machines and others. CNC stands for Computer Numerically Controlled and basically means that the physical movements of the machine are controlled by instructions, such as co-ordinate positions that are generated using a computer.
The term “CNC Machine” is typically used to refer to a device which uses a rotating cutting tool which moves in 3 or more axes (X, Y and Z) to cut-out or carve parts in different types of materials

The term “CNC” is a generic term which can be used to describe many types of device, this would include plotters, vinyl cutters, 3D printers, milling machines and others. CNC stands for Computer Numerically Controlled and basically means that the physical movements of the machine are controlled by instructions, such as co-ordinate positions that are generated using a computer.

The term “CNC Machine” is typically used to refer to a device which uses a rotating cutting tool which moves in 3 or more axes (X, Y and Z) to cut-out or carve parts in different types of materials

Knowledge of Materials and Tooling:
The type of material will factor into every stage of the Project – from initial concept through final finishing.


Arduino board


we used in this project Arduino Uno Rev.3, Which is based on ATmega328 microcontroller. We used this type because it contains 14 input/output pins, which is close to the number of ports needed by our project. In addition to 32KB flash memory which is enough to the program of our project.

DVD/CD Drives

We used two of them for the X and Y axis .

Mini Servo Motor
For Z axis
Breadboard
2x L293D ICs Motor driver
Simulation part
Description of our work:
Desassembly DVD/CD Drives
First step to start building this cnc machine is to disassemble two dvd/cd drives and take off them the stepper motors. Use the screwdriver to open them and take off them the rails.
Next step is to choose our base for this CNC machine.we choosed The Wood as a base
Finally we need to find something to attach the one of the stepper-rails vertically to our construction

. X and Y axis:
In first image above We see the Y axis of our CNC machine.We Attached it on Our surface, and we used some screws and nuts.
In second image we see the X and Y axis. The X axis is attached to First plate of wood
we make sure to put the Y axis straight to CNC base and the X axis vertically in this (90 degrees).

- The Z Axis
we need something to attach it on X axis, a flat surface. On that surface we attached the servo motor (Z axis) and the pen base. Pen (or pencil) must be able to move up and down with the help of servo motor

.
Paper Base
In this step we have to attach a wood (or plastic) surface on Y axis .
and we put the paper piece to print Our texts or images
**printing area is 4x4cm

The Circuit
X axis motor connection are: L293 A: Pins 1 and 3 & B: 2 and 4, but on Y axis motor connection are A: 1 and 2 & B: 3 and 4.

Programes
-Arduino
-Gcode
-Processing 3.01
-Inkscape
- After implementing the system, we obtained very good results; the system functioned as planned. All the features of the system tested successfully:
- The mini cnc plotter, provided good results. We have conducted many tests and applied different images . However, there are some misses, in these tests were due to the friction force in the stepper motors , which affects inversely on the motion of the steppers and makes some delay in the response, to avoid friction force we have lubricated the motors.
and there are some errors due to the design of z axis.
-
The mini cnc plotter is an open loop system because it doesn’t have any sensors to make a feedback to the system, but how we ensure that the system will work accurately as required?
-Firstly the image or text generated by Inkscape program , then the GCTRL program converts the image or text into matrix includes the X,Y,Z coordinates for each point in the image or text and then sends these coordinates as commands to the arduino program , The working principle of the stepper motor is it moves depending on the steppes (the commands was converted by GCTRL ) that received as electrical signals , and this is makes the plotter works accurately

Cnc mean computer numerical control machine it’s a form of programmable automation plotter on plate using coding consist of 3 motors and their drivers and body made of wood hold on motors and pencil and the plate we want to draw on it.
-
A plotter is a graphics printer that uses a pen or pencil to draw images. Plotters differ from printers in that plotters use continuous lines to create images while printers use a collection of dots. Like printers, plotters are connected to computers and are used to produce complex images and text. However, plotters are much slower than printers because of the mechanical motion necessary to draw detailed graphics using continuous lines. Architects and product designers use plotters for technical drawings and computer-aided design purposes . Additionally, many garment and sign manufacturers use cutting plotters in which the plotter's pen is replaced with a sharp razorblade.

A plotter works closely with a computer's imaging software to produce a final picture or object. The first step in using a plotter is to enter the appropriate coordinates for where you want the image to appear on the paper. Modern software allows the user to accomplish this goal very easily by drawing lines and images with the imaging software. Once the schematics for the image are complete, the computer downloads the coordinates to the plotter, which interprets the code and calculates the most efficient path for the pen and paper.

We tried to make cheap fast safety mini cnc plotter that draw on plate according to any drawing we draw to it.
in our project there are limitations on printing area due to size of steppers since it is just 4x4 cm. but if we use a large motors this will increase the opportunity of its usage in different wide applications. these large Plotters are capable of printing large scale images and can be used with different types of media. Typical uses include architectural drawings, maps, large signs or POP adverts in shops and supermarkets, art gallery prints or large photographs etc. Media options include: vinyl, canvas, fabric, card, paper, film, adhesive paper, coated paper, billboard paper etc and the media can either be sheet fed or roll fed.
Thanks for listening
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