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Jose Rizal in the Contemporary World

Group 4, GE 2-1 MWF 7:00 am - 8:00 am Socsci4 - Life and Works of Rizal

Honey Grace Robines

on 21 March 2014

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Transcript of Jose Rizal in the Contemporary World

Jose Rizal in the Contemporary World
by Leon Ma. Guerrero
The First Filipino
By Renato Constantino
Veneration Without Understanding
By Jose Maria Sison
Rizal the Subversive
By Manuel Sarkisyanz
Rizal and the Republican Spain
By Raul Bonoan, S.J.
Jose Rizal and the Asian Renaissance

Jose Rizal, first native ever to seriously articulate the vision for a united Philippines- Ruled by the elites who control most of the country’s wealth and the Spanish friar, the real power behind colonization.

The friar wielded more clout than the civil guard, keeping watch over every indio from cradle to grave. The natives are kept ignorant, steeped in religious and folk superstition, hooked to cockfighting and other forms of gambling.

The execution of the Three Martyrs – Fathers Gomez, Burgoz and Zamora or “Gomburza”- has a profound influence on the young Rizal, the boy, who has shown early indications of a versatile genius.

Rizal in time becomes an artist, farmer, surveyor, physician, novelist, historian, scholar, freethinker.

Rizal deplores the discrimination towards the natives (known as indios); the rampant land-grabbing and other injustice; the corruption in government; the sordid state of education. The apathy, indolence, and vices that have kept the indios shackled to poverty are the effects of centuries of foreign domination, that his forebears were not the savages depicted in history books, but were quite civilized and prosperous before the white man came.
Rizal wrote the Noli Me Tangere- a detailed account of life in the Islands. In his novel El Filibusterismo, Independence from Spain was too radical, and Rizal shrank from violence. He believes the people, ignorant and incapable of governing themselves, are not ready for independence.

Seen as a threat to the government, Rizal is banished to the island of Dapitan he falls in love with Josephine Bracken, an Englishwoman from Hong Kong. He lives with her without the benefit of marriage

During , the Philippine revolution he was incarcerated at Fort Santiago for treason and was sentenced to die by musketry on the 30th of December, 1896.

His last few hours preparing for execution are among the most controversial of his life. Rizal’s alleged retraction may have indeed come to pass. It is still hotly debated until now. It does not sit well with the Freemasons and other Rizal historians

About the book
Veneration Without Understanding
An essay first delivered as the Third National Rizal Lecture during the commemoration of his death in 1969.

A chapter in the book Dissent and Counter Consciousness of Renato Constantino
About the book
Veneration Without Understanding
An essay first delivered as the Third National Rizal Lecture during the commemoration of his death in 1969.

A chapter in the book Dissent and Counter Consciousness of Renato Constantino
The First Filipino by Leon Ma. Guerrero won the Centennial Award in 1961 for best biography of the Philippines’ national hero.
About the Book
This book of Professor Sarkisyanz explores Rizal, the Spain that influenced his views, and the Spain that killed him. He vividly describes the events that lead to Rizal's execution by trying to review details culled from various historians and documents. With this broad collection of details he comes up with an impressive analysis of the sociopolitical milieu during Rizal's period.
On the one hand, Professor Sarkisyanz clearly defines the liberal and republican ideals that existed in Spain which heavily influenced Rizal's own philosophy and encouraged him to seek reforms for the Philippines. On the other hand, Sarkisyanz presents the resentment and fears of clerical Carlists, who held power in Spanish Philippines and who worked untiringly until Rizal was put to death.
Chapter 2 is an interesting survey of the ideas that are expounded in greater detail in the following chapters. It clarifies the kind of Spain that Rizal looked up to and the Spain that dominated the Philippines. The spread of democratic ideals and the cry for the establishment of a republican Spain dominated the political atmosphere and certain encouraged Rizal and his companions to dream and work, that such changes would also happen in the Philippines.Chapter 2 is an
The core of the book resides in Chapter 5, which draws a very thorough exposition of the development of liberal ideas and the growth of republicanism within the Spain of Rizal. It describes how, even when the Republicans were already in power in Spain, their policies could still not be carried out in Spanish Philippines. It is direct in pointing out that clerical power was much too entrenched in the Philippines.
The book also devotes two chapters to the key Spaniards who influenced Rizal. One was Pi y Margall. "So important and decisive was the influence of Pi y Margall's human and intellectual personality on Rizal's life and thought that I believe that the latter would remain an enigma unless one knows the famous Catalan." The other person was Rizal's professor, Miguel Morayta, who inculcated in his students the "virus of reform, assimilationism and emancipation."
One can truly praise the depth by which Professor Sarkisyanz attempts to develop his thesis on Rizal and the influence that Republican Spain had on him. He is direct in opposing certain assertions made by historians and writers such as Fr. John Schumacher and Leon Ma. Guerrero. He points out the weaknesses of these assertions. At other points he supplies additional information that he deems vital to make these scholars' assertions balanced and not one-sided.
The book, however, suffers from trying to be too comprehensive. In many parts, it deals too deeply into the origins of Spanish democracy and republicanism, so that it loses its focus on Rizal and his relationship with this Spain. It also includes two chapters on the veneration of Rizal and the question of whether his attitudes were middle-class. These two topics depart from the theme of Rizal and Republican Spain but precede the chapters on the two important republicans that influenced Rizal, making the reader lose his way briefly in this rather interesting terrain.
About the Author
Awardee for education in The Outstanding Filipino
(TOFIL), 1997
Community leader
1989, president of Ateneo de Naga
Wrote “The Rizal-Pastells Correspondence” (Ateneo de Manila Press, 1994) and recognized as a major contribution to the study of Rizal and Philippine intellectual history
Published 16 articles about Rizal here and abroad
Died of a heart attack on April 6, 1999 at the age of 63
Fr. Raul Bonoan, S.J.
In recent decades, many changes occur in Asia, such as in:

Japan tilted the balance of trade against giant economic power of the United States of America, its conqueror in war

Philippines stunned the world with its display of people power, the first series of non-violent revolutions which brought down dictaorial regimes and reconfigured the world

China became the new business mecca of multinational corporations. At the handover of Hong Kong, the Chinese lit the sky with artworks of fire signaling their determination to dominate oth heaven and earth in the next century.

In 1996, results of international mathematics test was administered to a random sampling secondary school students all over the world surprised Asian themselves: Singapore, South Korea, Japan and Hong Kong took the top 4 spots.
Goal: “East Asian Economic Miracle”
But economic growth is only in function of a multifaceted, wider, deeper development
What is taking place is a social and cultural resurgence and revival

Anwar Ibrahim, Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia called this event as Asian Renaissance, epoch- making transformation analogous to the other renaissance that have taken place in history, particularly to that which emerged from the 14th-16th century Italy.

After centuries of marginalization, colonialization, gunboat diplomacy, and unequal treaties, the people of Asia are gaining confidence in themselves and mapping their own future.

Along Rizal, the precursors of these changes were Asian thinkers like:
Muhammad Iqbal

-”Poet of the East”
-The thinker of Pakistan
-His revolutionary works were through poetry and awakened the Muslims of the subcontinent

Rabindranath Tagore

-A Bengali polymath who reshaped his regions literature and music
-He opposed imperialism and supported Indian nationalists

Sun Yat Sen

-A Chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of the Republic of China
-Father of the nation
-forerunner of democratic revolution
Mahatma Gandhi

-leadership in Indian Revolution Movement
-employing an non-violent civil disobedience
-led India to independence for civil rights and freedom across the world

Jose Maria Sison focused, in 'Rizal: The Subversive', on two aspects of Jose Rizal's life:
Rizal's intellectual development, and
Rizal's acts that lead to his being branded a filibuster.

Jose Rizal was a member of the middle class, whom the spaniards granted special privileges.
Members of the middle class were permitted to take part in trade, rent lands to the curate, and study in Madrid. However, the less fortunate filipinos suffered in exchange granting these privileges to the middle class.
Rizal was aware of the repossession of lands, and the high rents and high taxes posed on the farmers. He knew that no one was safe from oppression, not even the members of the middle class.

Being a member of the well-educated middle class, Rizal acquired a radical and liberal way of thinking.
He believed that the freedom and independence of an individual, rests not only the person fighting to attain these, but also on the whole country.

Rizal was called subversive and branded a filibuster:
because he wanted the Spaniards' oppression of the Filipinos to stop. Aside from abuse of power and oppression, the Spanish government had no respect for human rights. He warned that continuous oppression and suppression would only fuel the Filipinos' desire for freedom and independence.

Rizal was able to reveal all these wrongdoings in his writings and compositions. His writings stated the Filipinos that they did not need the Spaniards and that they were able to develop and progress without any assistance. The Spaniards were the problem, not the Filipinos.
In his first novel "Noli Me Tangere", Rizal did not endorse a bloody revolution, instead, he introduced the possibility of reformation. In his second novel "El FIlibusterismo", Rizal showed how the abuse and maltreatment of the Spanish system would lead the Filipinos to revolt against them.

Rizal was a reformist. He wanted the Spaniards to change their abusive ways and improve their government for the sake of the Filipino people. He warned the spaniards that if they did not change, the filipinos would revolt. However, Rizal was mildly revolutionary in the sense that he showed the defects of the spanish government. He showed the abuse and cruelty that the Spaniards did to Filipinos. He denounced the evil acts of the Spanish government. With his acts, he hoped that the Filipinos would be angered which would cause the Spaniards to change. But the Spaniards did not. The Spanish government sparked the revolution.
Group 5
MWF 7:00 am - 8:00 am
GE 2-1
Abdulkadir, Mahathir
delos Reyes, Ree Anne
Encarnacion, Carl Bernadeth
Lape, Angelie
Pangilinan, Ralp Nino
Robines, Honey Grace
Santander, Wendelyn
About the Author
He learned patriotism from his grandmother.
In his youth times, he is already aware of the struggle both against American occupation and Japanese subjugation
He fought as a guerilla soldier during the battle in Bataan in the Raymunda Guidote unit.
In his late twenties, he joined the Philippine Mission to the United Nations from 1946 to 1949; counselor of the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) from 1949 to 1951.
He championed Philippine nationalism and opposition to the privilege.
He wrote many books and essays including:
A Past Revisited and The Continuing Past
The Making of a Filipino
Neo-Colonial Identity and Counter-Consciousness
The Nationalist Alternative
The Marcos Watch
The Mis-Education of the Filipino (essay)
Rizal’s refusal to align himself with the revolutionary forces and his vehement condemnation of the mass movement and of its leaders have placed Filipinos in a dilemma.
The Philippine Revolution has always been overshadowed by the omnipresent figure and the towering reputation of Rizal.
Rizal repudiated the one act which really synthesized our nationalist aspiration, and yet we consider him as a nationalist leader.
Rizal’s pre-eminence among our heroes was partly the result of American sponsorship.
His formal designation as our national hero, his elevation to his present eminence so far above all our other heroes was abetted and encouraged by the Americans.
Acts of the Philippine Commission: Act No. 137, Act No. 243, Act No. 346
Never advocated independence and armed resistance to the government
Not run against the grain of American Colonial Policy
No embarrassing anti-American quotations
The fundamental cause of mass action is not the utterances of leader; rather, these leaders have been impelled to action by historical forces unleashed by social development.

We must not fall into the error of projecting the role of the individual to the extent of denying the play of these forces as well as the creative energies of the people who are the true makers of their own history.
Rizal is a hero in the sense that he was able to see the problems generated by historical forces; but he is not a hero in the sense that he could not alter the course of events.

He was the first Filipino, but he was only a limited Filipino, the ilustrado Filipino who fought for national unity but feared the Revolution and loved his mother country.
The English occupation of the country, the end of the galleon trade, and the Latin-American revolutions of that time were all factors which led to an economic re-thinking by liberal Spanish officials.
Hispanization and assimilation constituted the ideological expression of the economic otivations of affluent indios and mestizos.

Anti-clericalism became the ideological style of the period.

Rizal contributed much to the growth of this national consciousness.
The concept of a Filipino nationhood is an important tool of analysis as well as a conceptual weapon of struggle.
Rizal was an ilustrado hero whose life’s mission corresponded ina general way to the wishes and aspirations of the people.
He believed in freedom bot so much as a national right but as something to be deserved, like a medal for good behavior.
Americans projected Rizal as the model of an educated citizen.
People learn and educate themselves in the process of struggling for freedom and liberty.
Rizal was one of the practitioners of a mendicant policy.
Propagandists chose Spain as the arena of their struggle instead of working among their own people, educating them and learning from them to realize their own condition and articulating their aspirations.
People proposed an elitist form of leadership, all the while believing that what the elite leadership decided was what the people would and should follow.
The contrast to the ilustrado approach was the Katipunan of Bonifacio.

The individual hero in history give way to new and higher forms of heroism.

Every nation is always discovering or rediscovering heroes in the past or its present.
View Rizal as an evolving personality within an evolving historical period.

See in his life and in his works the evolution of the Filipino and realize that the period crowned by his death is only a moment in the totality of our history.
A true appreciation of Rizal would require that we study these social criticisms and take steps to eradicate the evils he decried.

Time to examine his limitations and profit from his weaknesses just as we have learned from the strength of his character and his virtues.
We need heroes who can help us solve our pressing problems.

The true hero is one with the masses; he does not exist above them.

A whole people can be heroes given the proper motivation and articulation of their dreams.

Rizal the first Filipino, will be negated by the true Filipino by whom he will be remembered as a great catalyzer in the metamorphosis of the de-colonized indio.
Horacio de la Costa (eminent historian)
•Asserted that Rizal belonged not to the 19th century of Darwin but to the fifteenth century of the Italian humanists. For him, Rizal ranks with Confucius, who lived 5 centuries before Christ, as well as Mahatma Ghandi, in terms of his understanding of what is to be human being in the vast lands and ancient cultures in Asia.

Teodoro Agoncillo and Renato Constantino
•In their view, Rizal was a middle-class ilustrado whose sympathy for the people was academic, confined to the depiction of the social conditios of his time.
2 things about the prime analogue of renaissance:

1. Renaissance was a product of cross-fertilization of ideas.

2. In discovering Graeco- Roman literature and culture, the European Renaissance discovered humanity.
Rizal’s Unique Contribution to the Asian Renaissance

•Ideas employed by Rizal from west to bring an understanding of what it was to be a man and woman with unique complexities of the late 19th century Philippines, and what it was meant to construct the reality of the Filipino nation.
Philosophical Awakening
•Rizal relied heavily on Western thought, specifically the Enlightenment, for the elaboration of his political views.
An intellectual movement which was stretched from the 17th-18th century where the thinkers are known as “philosophes”.
Its principal doctrine was the autonomy of reason. This principle and its transcription into political liberalism were the philosophical anchors of the American and French revolution, contained in fact the distillations of the thought of the philosophes Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu.
Sapere Aude- motto of enlightenment means “Dare to think on your own”.
Historical Awareness
•Rizal the philosophe was also a physician, and as his country’s physician, he has to look at his patient’s history.
•He made a historical research at the British Museum and published his own edition of Morga’s Sucesos with his own copious notes, followed by articles which brought to bear the results of his research on the Philippine situation.
•Rizal praised the ancient Filipinos for their high civilization, active commerce with neighboring people, thriving industry and manufacture.
•Spanish colonial policy constricted development and driven the inhabitants to indolence and improvement.
Significance of Rizal’s novels :
•Noli an El Fili are definitely addressed to the FILIPINOS

•Rizal imagines Filipinos reading the book, addressing them with the sense of familiarity and bonding.

•Shows his Filipino readers the inner world of the novel coincides with the world of their day-to-day life.

•He presumed that the characters, readers and the writer to be one people.
Rizal’s execution shook the Filipino Collective psyche to its very core. His farewell poem, hidden in an alcohol burner which Rizal gave to his sister, was copied and multiplied in various forms. Bonifacio himself translated it, and had it distributed to the Katipuneros, who read it eyes welling with tears and hands tight on their bolos. It is characteristic of a nation that it inspires so many not so much to kill as to die for it.
Rizal did not merely translate the Enlightenment; he tamed it to serve his specific purposes and rigorously pushed reason’s autonomy and the universal principles of justice and freedom to their ultimate political conclusions.
Rizal’s legacy in the 21st century
by Floro Quibuyen
The La Liga Filipina
Formed two years after writing the El Filibusterismo

A mass-based organization that would pursue a five-point program of social transformation

5th aim of la liga “Estudio y aplicacion de reformas” – to mean to study and application of reformist measures within the framework of the colonial system

Rizal meant such measures as merely “palliative”

The spain regime correctly saw Rizal’s project as a movement towards an independent nation and, thus, promptly arrested and exiled him to Dapitan in 1892
Rizal came up with an answer over the question “how should live and relate to each other and what sort of nation should we aspire to be”?
He lived in the house of the governor and military commandant, Capt. Ricardo Carnicero

Bought a lottery ticket and won second prize(20,000 pesos)

Divided among three men and shared to his father and friend

Rizal moved to Talisay, a coastal barrio off the Dapitan Poblacion named after the Talisay tree

Rizal bought a 16 ha of land

There were no Talisay trees in Talisay, so Rizal thought of naming his place Baluno or Bauno

Then he built a house, a clinic, and a school for local boys who he described as mostly “poor and intelligent”
Talisay: the first progressive school in asia
Rizal practiced in talisay anticipate the anti-bureaucratic and democratic principle of what is known as progressive education or the alternative school movement

Predates the experimental school projects

“Education should not be confined within the walls of a classroom, that children learn best by doing and should be encouraged in their innate desire to discover and explore their surroundings, that the teacher is most effective when he is a co-learner with his words and serves as their role model in the joys and excitement of learning.”

Dec 19, 1893 Rizal wrote a letter to his best friend, Austrian ethnologist , Ferdinand Blumentritt, about his life in Talisay
Josephine bracken, Rizal’s partner in teaching the Talisay boys but also his nephews

Rizal oversaw their physical and mental development

Education was not confined within the classroom: the older boys were taught the use of the riffle and went hunting with Rizal; the younger ones explored the forest and seashores with Rizal to collect butterflies and assorted bugs, digs for seashells

And there were gym class for physical fitness and martial arts – weightlifting, wrestling, boxing, and fencing

Taught hi pupils lessons in courage and the art of living well and wisely
Himno A Talisay
To celebrate his most important achievement in talisay

Dedicated to his pupils and meant to be sung by them

The Spanish authorities used the Himno a Talisay as evidence against Rizal in his trial for treason in December 1896
Rizal in Dapitan in 1892
No park, no streetlights no irrigation system

Rizal pledge “ I want to do all I can for this town”

Rizal became the town’s doctor

Rizal engaged “social entreprenureship

Rizal formed Dapitan’s First Farmer Cooperative, SAD

Improve/promote agricultural products, obtain better profits for them, provide capital for the purchase of these goods, and help to the extent possible the harvesters and labourers by means of a store where articles of basic necessity are sold at moderate prices
Joint venture with a Spanish businessman (Carreon) for the construction and operation of a lime-burner (for making building mortars)

Provide capital and wages for labor

Wrote his brother-in-law Manuel “maneng” Hidalgo to sell his pukutan to him or to look for two men or families of the beach of Kalamba who understands fishing

Designed Dapitan’s first water system – a clay pipeline that delivered springwater from the hilltop to the edge of the town where people came in bancas to get drinking water
Captain Carnecero and his succesors Sitges provided funding for Rizal’s public works including water pipeline, kiln for brickmaking, streetlamps , Mindanao map, plaza beautification and clean-up marshes to get rid of mosquitos

Rizal became a dactor, social worker, public wroks engineer, town planner, teacher, farmer, social entrepreneur, school founder, scientist
Rizal’s Legacy
Unlike his successors, however, Rizal had not received any praise in the Philippines an internationally – for his four years in Dapitan

Progressive Education is perhaps Rizal’s greatest legacy in Daptian. In his Talisay School, Rizal pionnered what are now extrolled as “school-based management” and “community-based management”

School-based Management – the distribution of authority from the central government to the school level wherein responsibility for, and decision making authority over school operation is transferred to principals, teachers, and sometimes to students and other school community members
Community- based management
School of the people
A learning community where literacy and education, as well as social participation, mobilization and advocacy for reform are integrated towards the singular and continuing project of enabling people to move from the maragins of society to a social space in the mainstream which have created and helped to transform for themselves
Time Banks or Timebanking

A type of community currency in which the users create a form of mutual currency based on time. Community members can earn the currency by doing community focused activities and “spend it” receiving services from others in the community

Many of Rizal’s community project must have been carried through a system of cooperative labor that we now call batarisan – work for common good of the community

Rizal gifted the people of Dapitan with his vision, his talents and skills, knowledge and experience to realize projects that would redound to their well being
Author’s Comment
Forget Rizal’s martyrdom. It is how Rizal lived, not how he died, that will help us now. Instead of a national commemoration every December 30, we Filipinos should be remembering and celebrating July 17, 1892, the day Rizal arrived in Dapitan

Rizal’s Dapitan is a story that needs to be told; a story that our present generation needs to hear if we are if we are to find our way out of the converging catastrophes of the 21st century, towards a better world
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