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Dress Code & Social Norms
Transcript of Dress Code & Social Norms
The Middle East
Personal-Contextual dialectic- An Asian woman might be very reserved and indirect to foreigners, but with her friends, she can say what she wants directly.
Migrant-Host Relationships- when an Islamic person moves to a non-Muslim country he or she may stop wearing the hijab out of pressure to assimilate.
Nonverbal Communication- in China, etiquette dictates that if a guest compliments an item in a host's home, they will (if possible) receive it as a gift.
Proxemics - Arab Muslims often have shorter personal distances than do Americans - leading to misunderstandings.
Individualism vs. Collectivism- Muslims tend to be more collectivistic and doing things as a group rather than alone.
Facework - Chinese conflict management stresses avoidance, as having an argument in public is a loss of face all participants.
The Middle East and the Far East countries both have rules about dress that Westerners might find strict; however, the Middle East requires modesty for religious reasons, the Far East on the grounds of traditionalism. Both have rules that focus more on what women wear than on what men wear. Here are some questions to ponder:
Why are there more rules about what women should wear than what men should wear?
What do a culture's rules about dress code say about the culture?
What is a good general rule regarding dress code in a foreign country?
There are a few general rules:
Formal = traditional qipao, sambok, etc (or Western dress)
Informal = Western clothes; quality depends on where you are. Generally are less revealing than clothes in the West.
The Far East
There is an extreme difference between peasant and urban fashion. Clothing can represent not only how much money you have, but your job, your beliefs, and who your parents are. Showing your money is an important part of dressing - and so dress code is clearly displayed along class lines.
Peasant vs. Urban
Government officials, though privileged, adhere to a strict dress code; dark suits for almost everyone, though quality depends on class. Modesty depends on your job. Hostesses, for example, wear something like these:
Government officials at a meeting
being a hostess in China is like being a flight attendant in the '70s
beijing street style
fu er dai
Akou, Heather Marie. "Islamic Dress, Contemporary." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 250-254. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 22 July 2013.
Arthur, Linda B. "Religion and Dress." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. Vol. 3. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 94-100. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 22 July 2013.
Hoke, Beth. "Muslim Culture ." Sharon Pluralism Network Partners in a Diverse Community . Sharon Pluralism Network , n.d. Web. 22 Jul 2013.
Frye, Nels. Stylites. Web. 23 July 2013. <http://www.stylites.net/>
Chinasmack. Web. 23 July 2013. <http://www.chinasmack.com/>
"North Korea." everyculture.com. web. <http://www.everyculture.com/Ja-Ma/North-Korea.html#b>
newfocusintl. "Chongjin: North Korea's Fashion Capital." New Focus International. 14 jun, 2013. web. <http://newfocusintl.com/all-roads-begin-at-chongjin/>
Women and men are able to choose from a selection of haircuts designated by the state.
Men are required to cut their hair every fifteen days , due to the state's research stating that longer hair actually depletes the brain of its nutrition
Wealthier families have more options shoe wear and clothing
At times, they may also purchase "superior" goods from other countries such as South Korea or Japan. However, they may never wear them in public.
Historical context- As a result of the Korean war, much of what constitutes one's class today, is based on the role of a family member during the War. Korea's caste system consists of a"loyal", "wavering" and "hostile" class structure.
Dress is highly regulated by the state in order to prevent influence of western wear and capitalism
Muslim Dress & Identity:
-Muslims emphasize the group over the individual
-supression of individuality in favor of rules
- Male power and the separation of the sexes: physically & visually
-men's and women's dress should be different
-clothing should not be tight or reveal the form of the body underneath
-the design, texture, or scent of clothing should not attract attention
-a man should cover his body from knees to navel
-a women should cover everything but hands and face
-these rules apply to men and women in public places, religious places, and places where both men and women are present
Muslim Dress & Identity Continued:
-many individual men and women dress as Muslims for the purpose of showing their devotion to God
-Islam means "submission"; to the guidance and will of God
-Muslim, therefore, is literally "one who submits" and Islamic dress reflects that commitment
-the "five arkan" (or pillars) of Islam have fundamentally shaped what Muslims believe and practice, including how they dress
*modest clothing encouraged
*wearing the Hijab (head covering) is a mark of devotion and commitment to Faith
*in some countries wearing the Hijab is mandatory, but in others (like the US) it is a personal choice
*avoid wearing perfume that contains alcohol (which muslims are not allowed to drink)
*typically two layers of loose clothing are worn
*it is encouraged for men to grow a beard and dye it with henna
*devout men avoid wearing silk and gold
-loose clothing makes it easier to bow and kneel
-men and women who have completed the Hajj frequently wear clothing that displays their new status
-The ihram is a special form of dress worn during the pilgrimage: two lengths of white cloth, wrapped around the upper and lower body
-purpose: to eliminate the display of rank and wealth; all are equal before God
-Dress plays an important role in religious identity
North Korea also has a class structure based mostly on the status one is born in, as well as how much wealth they had before the war.
North Korean culture industry is also controlled by the state. There is only one major body of popular culture and is known by all North Koreans.
No major foreign movies, media, or fashion exists in North Korea. All forms of media depict a very nationalistic and anti-capitalist view. (However, it is known that Kim Jung-Il had a personal collection of movies.)
North Korea's fashion industry capital lies in Chonjing and has less restrictions on what to wear. It's a very stark difference from the discreet fashion of Pyongyang.
Static-Dynamic dialectic: Fashion in North Korea has been very stagnant, with little outside influences in styles.
When addressing Kim Il-Sung, Kim Jung-Il, or Kim Jung-Un, you always refer to them as "Our great Leader"/ "Dear Leader" before their name.
The highest ranking people are Kim Il-Sung's relatives, followed by comrades and their respective families. Then there are those who were Korean war veterans; their children are typically educated and receive better health benefits.
Most of this population resides in the capital of Pyongyang, where they live in apartment homes that have have electrical service, heat, and water.
The rest of the population consists of mainly ordinary citizens. Also, family members of those who were in prison, defectors, and accused of crimes, are downgraded in status and risk punishment.
When documenting a picture with the image of any of North Korea's leaders, you must never record. You may only take photos that grasp the whole image, never partial.
It is courteous to display a from of gratitude towards the great leader, whenever you feel privileged.
We believe that dress codes, which are certain rules about attire in different social situations, say things about the countries that they are found in. We chose to examine two regions: the Middle East and the Far East.
Though Western clothes are the norm, clothes seen as normal in America can be provocative in the Far East. For example: an attempt to ban miniskirts in South Korea, March of this year. Public dress code is a bit more covered-up than it is in the West., except for the young elite."Gangnam Style" makes fun of the lavish lifestyle they enjoy, which is inaccessible to almost every Korean.