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Transcript of Curriculum Approaches/
1. Clarification of Terms
II. Curriculum Approaches/Models
A. Technical Scientific
i. Bobbit and Charters Model
ii. The Tyler Model
iii. The Taba Model
iv. The Backward Design
v. The Task Analysis Model
Mr. Nashrudin C. ROxas
Curriculum Approaches: towards a definition
Bago (2008) said that analysis of an approach provides information about personal and collective commitments to a particular viewpoint and the values deemed important by individuals, schools and society.
It encompasses the foundations of the curriculum.
It reflects the developer’s philosophy, view of reality, history, psychology, social issues and the domains of knowledge.
It includes the theoretical and practical principles of the curriculum.
stresses students learning specifically subject matter with specific outputs
applies scientific principles and involves detailed monitoring of the components of curriculum design
attempts to systematically outline thoroughly the procedures that facilitate curriculum development
prioritizes knowledge acquisition and an educational system that is maximally efficient
Accoding to Oliva (2009), as curriculum development is a process for making programmatic decisions and for revising the products, thus a model can give order to this process.
As Taba stated, "If one conceives of curriculum development as a task requiring orderly thinking, one needs to examine both the order in which decisions are made and the way in which they are made to make sure that all relevant considerations are brought to bear these decision."
the modelS of Bobbitt and charters
professor of educational administration at the University of Chicago
taught at Philippine Normal School in Manila
together with W. W. Charters and other educators espoused the Social Efficiency Movement
known for his books
The Curriculum (
1918) and How to Make a Curriculum (1924), both follow the principles of scientific management
Professor and director of the Bureau of Educational Research at Ohio State University
earned his Ph. D. from the University of Chicago
a student of John Dewey
his most significant contribution to the field of curriculum development came in the form of his activity-analysis approach to curriculum construction
his works later influenced Tyler, Taba and Counts
Bobbitt Compared creating a curriculum to constructing a railroad.
The general route is planned first followed by surveying the field then the laying of the track.
He believed that the first task of the curriculum is to discover the activities which ought to make up the lives of students and along with these the abilities and personal qualities necessary for proper performance.
This approach continues in various types of task analysis, which some educators call backward design
He believed that changes in the curriculum are always preceded by modifications in our conception of the aims of education
Charters Four Steps of Curriculum Construction:
selecting the objectives
dividing them into ideals and activities
analyze them to the limits of working units
collecting methods of achievement
He states that a curriculum could contain both primary and derived subjects
Those that are directly required by a particular occupation
These are subjects that train students on the performance of actual tasks of a specific profession
Those subjects which are important not because they are directly useful in the performance of activities, but because they are derived from material which has practical service value.
The Tyler Model: FOur basic Principles
Ralph Tyler (1904, 1994)
He graduated his Ph. D. in 1927 at the University of Chicago.
In 1949, he wrote the book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, which became influential in the field of curriculum studies.
He became a prominent member of the Eight-Year Study.
He believed that evaluation of students' behaviors proved to be a highly appropriate means for determining educational success or failure.
Four Basic Principles
1. Identify the School's Purpose
2. Identify educational experiences related to those purposes
3. Ascertain how the experiences are organized
4. Evaluate the purposes
Tyler's Curriculum Development Model
The Taba Model: Grassroots rationale
Criticisms to Tyler's Model
Kliebard commented that Tyler's Model is not a universal model of curriculum development.
Patrick Slattery took the position that Tyler's Model, which is the traditional curriculum model, is now being challenged by postmodern curriculum development.
It is too linear, too reliant on objectivity and lacks interdependence among various components that curriculum development can become too mechanical a process.
Hilda Taba (1902-1967)
She was an architect, a curriculum theorist, a curriculum reformer, and a teacher educator.
She was a student of John Dewey and a contemporary of Tyler.
She wrote the book Curriculum Development; Theory and Practice in 1962.
She was known for her model of teaching involving inductive thinking.
The Taba Model
Unlike Tyler, Taba believed that teachers should participate in developing the curricula.
She advocated the Grassroots Approach, where the steps resemble that of Tyler's Model, but it does not utilize a top-down model.
Teachers should begin by creating specific teaching-learning units for their students and then build a general design.
She espoused the inductive approach.
Taba's Grassroots Model's Seven Major Steps
1. Diagnosis of Needs
2. Formulation of Objectives
3. Selection of Content
4. Organization of Content
5. Selection of Learning Experiences
7. Evaluation and Means of Evaluation
6. Organization of Learning Activities
The Backward-design Model
If the curriculum is perceived as a plan for the learning experiences that young people encounter under the direction of the school, its purpose is to provide a vehicle for ordering and directing those experiences. This process of providing the vehicle and keeping it running smoothly is commonly known as
refers to the preliminary phase when the curriculum workers make decisions and take actions to establish the plans that teachers and students will carry on.
refers to the translation of plans into action
refers to the process for making changes in an existing curriculum, or to the changes themselves
is used to substitute or is synonymous with curriculum revision
He is the President of Authentic Education in Hopewell, New Jersey.
He earned his Ed.D. from Harvard University.
He has worked on several influential programs which include Ted Sizer's Coalition of Essential Schools, the International Baccalaureate Program, and the Advanced Placement Program to name a few
He and McTighe were famous for their program Understanding by Design (UbD), which uses the Backward Model
He received his undergraduate degree from the College of William and Mary, earned his master’s degree from the University of Maryland, and completed post-graduate studies at the Johns Hopkins University.
Jay is an accomplished author, having coauthored 11 books, including the best-selling Understanding by Design series with Grant Wiggins, and also Educational Leadership (ASCD) and The Developer (The National Staff Development Council).
Identify expected endpoints
Plan learning experience
What do you want to accomplish?
What should students know?
What values and attitudes should they have?
What skills should they possess and be able to demonstrate?
It involves the identification of the school program's goals.
consider goals and checks on national, state, and local content standards
curriculum developers and teachers select content - valuable information and skills that might lead students to desired results
narrow down the content and identify the enduring understanding
At Stage 2:
teachers should think like assessors before they develop curriculum units and lessons
various assessment methods can be considered for this stage such as observations of students, quizzes and tests, performance tasks, projects and the like.
At Stage 3:
What knowledge and skills do students need to succeed in the course?
What activities enable students to master the requisite knowledge and skills?
What should be taught, and how should it be taught, for students to become knowledgeable and skillful in the identified content realm?
What materials foster student success in the curriculum?
Does overall design of the course or unit fulfill the principles of curriculum development?
The task analysis model
starts with the subject matter or content
What knowledge is mos important for students?
What subject matter enables students to perform the tasks of particular jobs within those professions?
Subject matter must be broken into parts
Master design chart is used to put structure
Master Design Chart
uses information gained from experts in the subject matter
contains the topics and related information
similar to a curriculum map but it deals how the content will be experienced
After the map has been completed, relationships among the content topics, concepts and the like should be identified
It should have a meaningful organization, e.g. chronological, logical or to the manner in which psychologists indicate students might best learn it.
It begins when content is being organized
Encompasses activity analysis
Addresses which learning processes are required for students to learn the selected content
At this stage, the learning analyst selects instructional approaches that direct students towards the curriculum's goals
In the next stage of learning analysis, a master curriculum map plan is develop
Master Curriculum Plan
synthesizes the information obtained and organized through the selection of subject content and learning approaches.
format of the master plan is determined by the planner
Learning Activity/Instructional Approach
Enduring understandings are statements summarizing important ideas and core processes that are central to a discipline and have lasting value beyond the classroom
"One looks back with appreciation to the brilliant teachers, but with gratitude to those who touched our human feelings. The curriculum is so much necessary raw material, but warmth is the vital element for the growing plant and for the soul of the child."