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Protein Synthesis DRHS205

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Andy St. Louis

on 28 January 2013

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Transcript of Protein Synthesis DRHS205

RNA Structure
RNA, like DNA, is a long chain of nucleotides.
Remember a nucleotide is a sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.

Three differences between DNA and RNA.
1. RNA is a single stranded molecule, not double.
2. The sugar in RNA is ribose (DNA is deoxyribose).
3. RNA has the base Uracil in place of Thymine. So A pairs with U, not T.
1. mRNA (messenger)
-Brings the message from the nucleus to
the ribosome.

2. tRNA (transfer)
-Brings amino acids to the ribosome.

3. rRNA (ribosomal)
-Part of the ribosome TRANSCRIPTION

-mRNA molecules are made by copying part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA.

DNA: A, T, C, G
RNA: A, U, C, G

-Requires an enzyme called RNA polymerase to bind to DNA and separate the two strands. It then uses one strand as a template to create a strand of mRNA. RNA EDITING

Just like a writer edits a first draft, RNA must also edit itself before it is ready to be used. There are places along the DNA that do not code for protein production. These are called introns. The DNA sequences that do code for proteins are called exons (because they are expressed). The Genetic Code (Codons)
-The "genetic code" is the mRNA instructions. The "code" is read 3 letters at a time (UCG). These three letters are known as a codon.
-Proteins are made by joining amino acids into long chains called polypeptides.
-The properties of proteins are determined by the order in which the amino acids are joined.
Amino Acids
-Serine-Histidine-Glycine Translation (Building Proteins)
The sequence of nucleotide bases (codons) in mRNA serves as instructions to build proteins.

Protein synthesis takes place on the ribosome.
1. mRNA attaches itself to a ribosome.
2. As each codon (3 bases) of mRNA is moved through the ribosome the proper amino acid is brought into the ribosome by tRNA.
3. Each tRNA molecule has three unpaired bases called the anticodon. These anticodons are complementary to one mRNA codon and bring a specific amino acid to the ribosome. KINDS OF MUTATIONS
-Once in a while cells make mistakes in copying their own DNA. These mistakes are called mutations. Mutations are changes in the genetic material.
Gene Mutations: Changes in one or a few nucleotides
-Substitutions (Only changes one amino acid)
-Insertions (Frameshift-Can change every amino acid after it)
-Deletions (Frameshift-Can change every amino acid after it)

Chromosomal Mutations: Changes in the number or structure of chromosomes
- Deletion: loss of part of a chromosome
-Duplication: produces extra copies of parts of a chromosome
-Inversion: reverses the direction of parts of a chromosome
-Translocation: One part of one chomosome breaks off and attaches to another. Significance of Mutations
Most mutations are neutral and have little or no effect. Some mutations cause dramatic changes and can be harmful by producing defective proteins that disrupt normal biological activities and may result in genetic disorders. THE NUCLEUS
-DNA and RNA are stored in the nucleus. However, the nuclear pores are only big enough for one strand to pass through. Since DNA is double stranded it always stays in the nucleus, only mRNA can travel in and out of the nucleus. EXONS=Expressed

-There are a total of only 20 amino acids. These 20 amino acids make every protein in your body.
-Every codon (3 bases) on the mRNA codes for a specific amino acid.
-tRNA then brings the specific amino acid by matching its anticodon to the codon on the mRNA molecule. Transcription & Translation
Building Proteins
Full transcript