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Alisah Lauderdale

on 17 April 2014

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Collaboration Effort by Glover, Lauderdale, Martin, and McCleskey.
When Do Social Stigmas Occur?
By: Alisah Lauderdale
Current Events
Symptoms and Causes
Social Perception
Thursday, April 17, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
The Evolution of PTSD
History of PTSD
By: Torey McCleskey
Exposure Treatment
Memory Processing
Confronting Triggers
Prolonged Exposure (PE)
Virtual Reality Exposure (VRE)
Complete Control
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Don't understand PTSD.
Don't realize PTSD can be treated.
People have a mindset that it is "your own fault" or that "you can get over it."
People are afraid they might catch what the veteran has.
Society thinks PTSD makes someone dangerous.

Ticking Time Bombs!
The media often links PTSD to violent crime among veterans, even if there is no evidence proving a relation. Media often sets the social stigma labeling veterans "ticking time bombs."
Re-experiencing symptoms
Reoccuring/Nightmares memories of event
Physical Reaction to event
Avoiding Symptoms
Staying away from reminders of traumatic event
Feeling emotionally numb
Strong feelings of guilt,depression
Having trouble remembering the event
Hyper arousal
Easily frightened
Trouble Sleeping/Concentrating
Feeling tense or on edge
Instantly angry or irritable at times
Stigma For Soldiers
Many service men and veterans fear being seen as weak or unreliable.
They believe seeking treatment will negatively affect their career.
Veterans who do not seek treatment some times turn to substance abuse or in extreme cases, suicide.
Employers Perception
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission along with the Americans with Disabilities Act released a guide for employers that states "It is illegal for an employer to refuse to hire a veteran because he has PTSD, because he was previously diagnosed with PTSD, or because the employer assumes he has PTSD."
Despite it being illegal, employer concerns and outright prejudice against combat veterans will likely continue as long as the stereotype is perpetuated.
Named by Swiss physician Johannes Hofer
based off of the symptoms of the Swiss Troops
incessant thinking of home
disturbed sleep or insomnia
loss of appetite
cardiac palpitations
Soldiers Heart
After the Civil War
Diagnosed by Jacob Mendez Da Costa
also called Da Costa Syndrome
Jacob did a study on 300 soldiers who were in the war and when they came home from the war
altered heart rates
high pulse rates
high blood pressure
He found out that the soldiers who showed these signs during the war, continued to have these symptoms after the war
Shell Shock
During World War I
caused by the impact of shells, which caused concussions and was “believed to disrupt the brain and cause ‘shell shock’"
Symptoms Treatment
dramatic paralysis -Has to treated immediately
blindness - let soldiers rest and eat
dazed manner - send soldiers back to combat
heightened startle response
chest pain
difficulty concentrating
disturbed sleep
Combat Fatigue
During World War II
the evolution of war had changed with new weapons, which put soldiers at a higher risk
shortness of breath
disturbed sleep
difficulty concentrating
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
After the Vietnam War
Was a official diagnoses in the DSM-III
PTSD was a psychologically distressing event that is outside the range of usual human experience. The original stressor is usually experienced with intense fear, terror, and/or helplessness and not an experience that is culturally normal
Later on it was revised in the DSM-III-R
'outside the range of usual human experience' taking out
Three dimensions added
avoidance and numbness
physiological arousal

A traumatic event that cause stress related
symptoms. Symptoms can take a few months to appear. Events such as :
Combat exposure
Child sexual or physical abuse
Terrorist attack
Sexual or physical assault
Serious accidents, like a car wreck
Natural disasters, like a fire, tornado, hurricane, flood, or earthquake

About 1/3 of Americas veterans are said to struggle with PTSD, TBI, or depression. A large body of research indicates that PTSD increases the likelihood of suicidal behavior.
1/3 of veterans troubled with PTSD puts the overall number affected at 600,000.
Less than 40% will seek help for PTSD.
According to the Department of Veteran Affairs approximately 22 veterans commit suicide in a day.
Family View
Every member of the family is plagued by PTSD.
CNN has made an interactive web page to tell some of the stories about how the family is affected by PTSD and their military family member.

Parents, wives, siblings, and children are all affected by their military relative and PTSD. They are often times stressed, worried, afraid, sad, and angry because of how the military and PTSD is affecting their family.
By: Stephanie Glover
By Kaideidra Martin
Types of Exposure
Imaginal Exposure
Internal Confrontation
In Vivo Exposure
"In Life"
Real world objects, scenarios, places
Sertaline (Zoloft)
Both FDA Approved
Veteran Approval
Only 9% prefer medication
Available for treatment during deployment as well
Role Play
Shawn is a 23 year old Marine on his third tour duty in Iraq. Over the last deployments several of his friends were killed in war. When he can back home from his last tour of duty, him and his spouse got into an argument and he hit her several times, bruising her face. They are now facing a divorce unless Shawn seeks help for his problems. Shawn is also an alcoholic, and is using alcohol to numb the pain he experienced while in Iraq. After your first meeting with Shawn he seems to be developing signs of PTSD
Negative changes in beliefs and feelings
Not having positive or loving feelings
Staying away from relationships
Forgetting parts of the traumatic event
Not being able to talk about the event
Full transcript