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AP Biology 4 Big Ideas

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Valentin Torres

on 28 March 2016

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Transcript of AP Biology 4 Big Ideas

Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution
Principles of Life
Biology
Survive and reproduce
parts forming a complex whole
Surrounding
Living things is a
Information
Evolution
Endocrine
Immune
Nervous
Population Growth
Communities are composed of populations of organisms that interact in complex ways
population interactions (e.g., predation, competition, symbiotic relationships, invasive species)
factors that population growth
Community
interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy
affects biodiversity
trophic levels
Succession
Transpiration
Ecosystem
Body System Level Communication
Type of cell signaling (autocrine, paracrine/synaptic, hormonal)
homeostasis
feedback mechanisms (negative, positive)
maintained by energy influx of energy
Cells & Organelles
Organisms have areas or compartments that perform a subset of functions related to energy and matter, these parts contribute to the whole
Biological Molecules
Matter & Energy
Genetic instruction for life
Compartmentalize
Structure & function
System
Life requires constant flow of energy to maintain ordered system
(potential energy)
(disorder/unusable energy)
(available energy to do work)
Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis
Energy
Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties
Organisms employ various strategies to capture, use and store free energy
Photosynthesis
Light energy
chemical energy
(stored energy = ^\enthalpy)
Cellular Respiration
energy flows
energy flows
energy flows
Matter
Cycles
O2 + CH2O
CO2 + H2O
Anaerobic Respiration
Aerobic Respiration
(chemical energy)
energy flows
Universe
energy flows
More order
Tropic levels
Recycle matter
Redox Reaction
Cellular respiration
Photosynthesis
Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce, and maintain homeostasis
surface area-to-volume ratios affect a biological system's ability to obtain necessary resources or eliminate waste products
root hairs, cells of alveoli (lung), cells of villi, microvilli (digestive), short and round (cold environment), dendrite spines
plasma membrane (semi permeability)
Osmosis (a diffusion of water)
Passive vs Active Transport
Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes
DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary sources of heritable information
Cell signaling
Cell Cycle
Cell Division
DNA Replication
Genetic information flows from a sequence of nucleotides in a gene to a sequence of amino acids in proteins
Central Dogma
Gene Regulation
Traits
Prokaryotic cells
Operon
Eukaryotic cells
Epi-genetics
Cell Cycle Regulation
DNA Mutation
Inheritance
Biotechnology
two different alleles separate during gamate formation (50:50 chance of passing on one of two alleles)
each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of allele during gamate formation
(expression of a trait due to one allele is independent of another allele)
(phenotype)
Test cross
Pedigree
Linked genes
Sex-linked genes
Thomas Morgan
Gregor Mendel
Chi-Square
manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products
Bacterial transformation
PCR
Gene therapy
Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life
Decent with modification
Evidence of evolution
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium
Speciation
Scientific Practices
Action potential require energy
Full transcript