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Assessment 2 - Mental Illness

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on 20 May 2013

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Transcript of Assessment 2 - Mental Illness

Beyondblue.org.au (n.d.) beyondblue. [online] Available at: http://www.beyondblue.org.au/the-facts/depression [Accessed: 1 May 2013].

(2013). Recovery and staying well. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.beyondblue.org.au/the-facts/recovery-and-staying-well . [Last Accessed 27 March 2013].

(2013). Understanding and Managing Depression. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/tip_sheets/depression/. [Last Accessed 05/05/2013]. Bi Polar Disorder

Anxiety

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Depression Description Treatment
The key to preventing anxiety is being aware of life stressors and knowing your own ability to cope with them. Edwards (2007) suggests coping strategies could include:
Regular exercise
Healthy eating
Adequate rest
Avoiding caffeine and inappropriate drugs
Meditation
Visualization

Where to get help: GP, Psychologist,
www.beyondblue.org.au
www.blackdoginstitute.org.au
www.headspace.org.au
www.centreforemotionalhealth.com.au
www.anxietyonline.org.au Causes Common Types of Mental Illness Description

Causes

Treatment

Prevention & Help Causes Treatment Prevention & Help Description Causes Treatment Prevention & Help Causes A study was conducted on the perceptions of cause for depression among people recovering from the illness. The main causes identified included:

- Stress in martial relationships
- Conflict in families
- Changes in circumstances
- Early life experiences

Overall, depression is linked to the stresses of everyday life that were exacerbated by conflicts within family. Treatment Prevention & Help Description

Causes

Treatment

Prevention & Help Bipolar, is a disorder where patients have recurrent periods of abnormally raised and irritable moods. Divided into two types (Bipolar I and Bipolar II) this disorder ranges from mild hypomania to severe forms of mania and psychosis.

It is equal in females and males with 10-20% of those with the disease resorting to taking their own lives. Alarmingly "nearly one-third of patients admit to at least one suicide attempt". Description

Causes

Treatment

Prevention & Help Hereditary factors – Some people with a family history of anxiety are more likely to also experience high levels of anxiety.
Biochemical factors – Research has shown that people with anxiety may have a chemical imbalance in the brain.
Life experiences – Live events such as, family break ups, abuse, and bullying can challenge a person’s coping resources and make them more vulnerable to anxiety.
Personal style – Some personality types are more at risk to high anxiety
Thinking styles – Some peoples thinking styles are more at risk to high anxiety than others Depression is a serious illness that impacts people both mentally and physically. Depression affects how a person feels about themselves. The person may experience long periods of low mood and lose interest in things they normally enjoy. They experience fatigue, feel irritable, lack of concentration and experience sleeping difficulties. Depression makes life hard to manage on a day to day basis. Factors believed to play a role in the causes of Bipolar are:

Genetics: 80% of people with Bipolar inherit the disorder.

Brain Chemicals: abnormal serotonin chemistry in the brain which affects moods.

Environmental: linked to a stressful life event, but unlikely that a stress itself is a cause (Black Dog Institute, 2009). Decription Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is made up of obsessions and compulsions. Robinson, Segal, Smith (2013) suggest obsessions are involuntary, uncontrollable thoughts, images or impulses that occur repetitively in your mind.
Compulsions are behaviors’ or rituals that you feel driven to act out over and over again. The Australian Psychological Society (2013) explains the treatment of Depression includes:
Psychological treatments: A supportive environment to work through difficulties and provide strategies to change negative thinking patterns.
Anti-depressant medications: Anti-depressants are drugs that help restore the chemical balance to improve mood.
Combination of treatments: Severe depression includes psychological treatment and medication.
Tips to manage symptoms:
Tips on how to manage symptoms:
• Plan to participate in an activity each day.
• Keep busy and mind focused on the task; avoid unstructured time.
• Think positively.
• Educate and advise key people of support to help them understand.
• When feeling irritable or agitated stop and ask ‘what is driving your emotions’?
• Practice regular relaxation and meditation
• Be active as possible, despite feeling fatigued.
• Keep the same sleeping schedule. The most effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder is cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). CBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder involves two parts:

1. Exposure and response prevention – this involves repeated exposure to the source of the obsession.
2. Cognitive therapy – Learning healthy and effective ways to respond to the obsessive thoughts, without resorting to the compulsive behaviour.

Antidepressant medication is often used in conjunction with CBT. Research has found patients with OCD respond to a particular group of antidepressants, Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SIRs). SIR’s have been reported to be an effective anti-obsessive drug. [untitled image of bipolar]. (n.d) Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://nerdnirvana.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/bipolar-500x434.jpg [untitled image of obsessive compulsive disorder]. (n.d) Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://www.cherrypedrick.com/ocd/ [untitled image of depression]. (n.d). Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://nanda-nursing.blogspot.com.au/2011/04/nursing-care-plan-for-depression.html [untitled image of anxiety]. (n.d). Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://positivemed.com/2013/03/20/10-ways-to-beat-anxiety/ [untitled image of mental health]. (n.d). Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://www.griffith.edu.au/criminology-law/criminology-criminal-justice/what-can-i-study/forensic-mental-health Little is known about what causes OCD. Patrick,(2008) indicates a combination of the below factors could lead to OCD:

• A family member has ODC
• Having some of the chromosomal markers for the disorder
• Having certain abnormalities in a specific part of your brain
• Experiencing a traumatic event
• Having a new born baby in the immediate family
• Being highly religious Cognitive therapy – This involves identifying unhelpful beliefs and thought patterns to assist in changing behavior like restlessness.

Lifestyle changes - increasing exercise, reducing caffeine, reducing alcohol intake and improve time-management skills

Breathing exercises - commonly known that when anxious, breathing becomes more rapid so slowing down your breathing can help.

Relaxation techniques - releasing muscle tension provides physical relief for anxiety sufferers.

Thought Management - the use of thought replacement to draw attention away from negative thoughts, to suppress the onset of anxiety. The OC Foundation
[http://www.ocfoundation.org]

This foundation offers information on therapists, clinics, treatment options, support groups and links to resources.

Whilst OCD is characterized as uncontrollable, the help is extensive and the knowledge of the disorder is common. Peers of an OCD sufferer can recognize the condition in cases where the sufferers may not seek medical advice themselves. Beyond Blue (2013) explain the key to preventing depression is through education. Learning what triggers depression and how to manage these triggers will help to prevent a relapse in the future. For more detailed information contact a health care professional or visit the below links. The Anxiety Advice Facebook page (2013) state, anxiety is the bodies’ way of responding to stress or a threat, for most people anxiety is controllable. When a person is experiencing anxiety symptoms in the absence of stress, for a prolonged period of time and if symptoms are interfering with everyday activities, the Australian Psychological Society (2013) believe the person may have an anxiety disorder. The Australian Psychological Society (2013) explain, anxiety symptoms can include:

• Dry mouth• Trembling• Sweating
• Rapid heartbeat• Difficulty breathing
• Upset stomach• Avoidance behavior• Irritability
• On going worry• Negative thoughts Description

Causes

Treatment

Prevention & Help Bipolar disorder cannot be prevented. Information about Bipolar or where to seek help can be found at the links below:

http://www.blackdoginstitute.org.au/index.cfm

http://www.headspace.org.au/is-it-just-me/find-information/bipolar-disorder

http://au.reachout.com/Bipolar-Disorder

http://www.sane.org/helpline

https://www.facebook.com/groups/105499482839051/?ref=ts&fref=ts Treatment of Bipolar disorder varies depending on whether the person has Bipolar I or II. Mller-oerlinghausen,Berghfer, and Bauer(2002) explain treatment for Bipolar I consists of lithium, valproate and an anti psychotic, whereas, Bipolar II treatment consists of lamotrigine and quetiapine. Mller-oerlinghausen et al., goes on to explain, medication alone is not enough to manage Bipolar, the affected person should seek psychological help and learn what their triggers are. Description http://www.beyondblue.org.au


http://www.blackdoginstitute.org.au


http://www.sane.org/information/factsheets-podcasts/178-depression References Prevention Help References Australia, N. (2011) bipolar disorder. [online] Available at: http://www.headspace.org.au/is-it-just-me/find-information/bipolar-disorder [Accessed: 10 May 2013].

Facebook.com (2013) Facebook. [online] Available at: https://www.facebook.com/groups/105499482839051/?ref=ts&fref=ts [Accessed: 10 May 2013].

Mller-oerlinghausen, B; Berghfer, A; Bauer, M, (2002). Bipolar Disorder. The Lancet.359 (9302), pp.241–247 References

Helpguide.org (2013) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): Symptoms, Behavior, and Treatment. [online] Available at: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/obsessive_compulsive_disorder_ocd.htm [Accessed: 2 May 2013].

Menzies, R. and De Silva, P. (2003) Obsessive compulsive disorder. Chichester, West Sussex, England: Wiley.

McGrath P, (2008). OCD Answer Book Professional Answers to More Than 250 Top Questions about Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Naperville: Sourcebooks, Inc. References References Beyondblue.org.au (n.d.) beyondblue. [online] Available at: http://www.beyondblue.org.au/the-facts/anxiety [Accessed: 10 May 2013].

Dryden-Edwards, Roxanne MD (2007). Anxiety. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/anxiety/page9_em.htm#prevention. [Last Accessed 05/05/2013].

Facebook (2013). Anxiety . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.facebook.com/AnxietyAdvice?ref=ts&fref=ts. [Last Accessed 23 March 2013].

(2013). Understanding and managing anxiety. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/tip_sheets/anxiety/#s5. [Last Accessed 27 March 2013]. Created by Eliza Monaghan
Kharlee Wilson
Elice Wells
Jesse Jansen
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