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World War I

This presentation highlights the people and events that led to the start of the Great War

Douglas Ramage

on 7 February 2017

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Transcript of World War I

Causes of World War I MAJOR EUROPEAN NATIONS gREAT BRITAIN gERMANY FRANCE RUSSIA Large Overseas Empire Industrialized Powerful Navy Small Army Small Overseas Empire Industrialized large Army Medium Overseas Empire Industrialized Large Army Little to no Empire Lack of Industry Large Army Large Population European Leaders King George V
Great Britain Kaiser Wilhem II
Germany Czar Nicholas II
Russia All Three Were Cousins! Nationalism Deep sense of pride and loyalty to one's nation "Super" Patriotism Belief that their Nation & people is the best Militarism The greater the military the greater the nation Industrial Revolution created new more powerful weapons Arms race in Europe Imperialism Industrialized nations want colonies Competition for resources and wealth Large empires = wealth and power Intensify rivalries between nations Alliances Formed to avoid war Maintain a balance of power 1 event could trigger a huge war!! Austria-Hungary Old Empire Many Ethnic Groups Lead to Conflict Natural Ally With Germany Emperor Franz Joseph
Austria-Hungary Triple Alliance
Italy Triple Entente
Great Britain
Russia Large artillery Machine gun Battle ships Nations promised to support one another in a conflict Great Britain protect their empire
made nervous by Germany
France is traditional rival Germany Jealous of Great Britain
Wants a larger Empire
Increases its Navy & Army
Natural allies with Austria-Hungary France Growing fear of Germany
Natural enemy with Russia & Great Britain Russia trying to catch up with the West
large nation with many problems
people are frustrated with the Czar Austria-Hungary taking over lands in the Balkans
natural ally with Germany
trying to regain power in Europe Italy wants to be a major power
wants more colonies
wants lands in Austria-Hungary United States Remains neutral and isolated from Europe
Plans to trade and profit from any potential war The Spark Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia & Herzegovina
angers Serbia
Do not want Slavic people under Austrian control
Terrorist group Black Hand forms
Plans to attack Austria-Hungary The Assassination The Black Hand targets Archduke Franz Ferdininad of Austria-Hungary
Heir to the throne
Visiting Bosnian city of Serajevo
Black Hand will strike during parade Archduke & Wife Sophie arriving in Serajevo Attack during the parade fails
Archduke decides to visit hospital to see those injured by the bomb
Driver takes wrong turn
Car stops in front of assassin Gavrillo Princip Princip fires twice
Kills the Archduke & his wife Photo of Princip's arrest The Archduke's Funeral WAR! Austria-Hungary wants revenge
Learns that Serbia supplied weapons to the Black Hand
A-H wants war with Serbia
Russia is ally to Serbia
Germany supports Austria-Hungary
July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Alliances Are Triggered! Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary
Germany declares war on Russia
France declares war on Germany
Great Britain declares war on Germany
Italy stays out for now Europe is now at war! Nations celebrated the declaration of war in 1914 A Two-Front War Germany in the center of Europe
Surrounded by enemies
Must fight a Two-Front War Schlieffen Plan Developed by Germany's General Schlieffen
Hold off Russia in the East
Invade France through Belgium
Capture Paris
France surrenders
Great Britain will make peace
Send army back to Russia to defeat them
Germany wins the war by Christmas Belgium Is The Key! Belgium was neutral
Germany asked permission to march through
Belgium says "No"
Germany invades August 1914
Belgians slow German Army
England joins the war The Bad Guy Belgium used as propaganda
News stories spread rumors of German atrocities
"Remember Belgium!" The Plan Fails Germans are too slow
French Army retreats
British able to land forces
Germans must take Paris!
Germans push British & French back to the Marne River 1st Battle of the Marne British & French counter-attack at the Marne River
September 5-12, 1914
Stop German attack on Paris
Heavy casualties: 500,000 casualties (80,000 French killed)
Both armies reach stalemate
Stalemate: neither side can advance
Both sides begin to dig trenches
Beginning of trenchwarfare on the Western Front Trench Warfare Dig into the ground for protection
Both sides try to outflank one another
Trenches will be dug hundreds of miles across France Trench Warfare Western Front
Trenches spread across France
Inhuman conditions Trench Diagram No Man's Land Area between the enemy trenches
Must cross to reach enemy trench
No cover, open to enemy fire
Mud, artillery shell holes Life in the Trenches Soldiers lived in trenches 24/7
Under constant bombardment
Rats, lice
Open latrines
Dead bodies Over the Top Soldiers leave trench to charge enemy Artillery German U-Boat Poison Gas Air Warfare Tanks The United States & WWI USA & the War US remained neutral
Sell war materials to each side
US ships stopped by British Navy
US ships sunk by German subs
US believed they had freedom of the seas Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Germany used U-Boats (submarines) to sink ships carrying supplies to Great Britain
British need supplies to continue to fight the war
British begin to smuggle war goods on passenger ships Lusitania British passenger liner sailing from New York to England
Germans warn travelers that the ship will be sunk if found by a U-Boat
Lusitania was smuggling war materials
May 7, 1915: Lusitania torpedoed and sunk by German U-Boat
1,195 people killed, 123 Americans
Americans outraged
Anti-German attitude strengthens in the US Lusitania in New York German Warning to Passengers Propaganda using the Lusitania US Does Not Declare War President Wilson demands German apology
Germany makes Sussex Pledge
Will not sink anymore US ships without warning, ends unrestricted sub warfare
How will this effect Germany's ability to win the war? Germany's Dilema Sussex Pledge
keeps the US out of the war
allows supplies to get to Great Britain
makes it harder for Germany to win the war Unrestricted Subwarfare
keeps supplies from getting to Great Britain
will bring the US into the war
Germany will now have to fight another enemy "Unless the Imperial Government should now immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present methods of submarine warfare against passenger and freight-carrying vessels, the Government of the United States can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with the German Empire altogether" - Presidet Wilson Zimmerman Note Germany sends coded telegram to Mexico
Proposes an alliance with Mexico
Germany will aid Mexico
Mexico will declare war on the US
British intercept & decode the telegram
Published in US newspapers March 1, 1917
Americans outraged, demand action United States Declares War! April 2, 1917 President Wilson asks Congress for a declaration of war against Germany
US will join the Allied Powers
Wilson says the US will fight to "make the world safe for democracy" The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind.

It is a war against all nations. American ships have been sunk, American lives taken, in ways which it has stirred us very deeply to learn of, but the ships and people of other neutral and friendly nations have been sunk and overwhelmed in the waters in the same way. There has been no discrimination. The challenge is to all mankind. Each nation must decide for itself how it will meet it. The choice we make for ourselves must be made with a moderation of counsel and a temperateness of judgment befitting our character and our motives as a nation. We must put excited feeling away. Our motive will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the physical might of the nation, but only the vindication of right, of human right, of which we are only a single champion. Wilson's Address to Congress Wilson Addressing Congress Troubles in Russia Russia losing the war
People are broke, starving & freezing
Protests and riots over food & fuel
Czar Nicholas II hated by many
March 1917: Czar Nicholas II abdicates his throne
New government continues the war Lenin & the Bolshevik Revolution Vladimir Lenin returns to Russia
Leads Bolshevik party
Communist revolution in November 1917
Promises the people: "Bread, peace, land"
Lenin & the Bolsheviks take control of the government
Make peace with Germany
March 1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Russia drops out of the war Lenin Speaking Impact of the Communist Revolution in Russia Impact on the War Russia drops out of the war
Surrenders a large area of land to Germany & Austria-Hungary
Allows Germany to send troops to the Western Front
Germany now fighting a 1 front war Impact on History Civil War for control of Russia
Czar & his family arrested and murdered July 1918
First Communist nation in the world Land Surrendered by Russia Lusitania Sunk! The Doughboys Arrive US troops arrive in France
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
General John J. Pershing
US troops welcomed by cheering crowds Germany's Last Chance March 1918: Germany launches a major offensive on the Western Front
“ We must strike at the earliest moment before the Americans can throw strong forces into the scale. We must beat the British.” - Gen. Luderndorff
German troops move fast & drive Allied forces back towards Paris
End of trench warfare & stalemate
War will now move quickly Germany's Spring Offensive Attack Halted German offensive stalls
German troops exhausted and running low on supplies
Allies hold outside of Paris
2nd Battle of the Marne
Allies counter attack and begin driving German troops out of France & back towards Belgium Western Front 1918 Before German Offensive End of German Offensive Western Front When Germany Surrenders Central Powers Collapse October 30, 1918: Ottoman Empire sues for peace
November 3, 1918: Austria-Hungary sues for peace
November 7, 1918: German generals meet with Allies to negotiate cease fire
November 9, 1918: Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates his throne and flees to Holland
November 10, 1918: New German government is founded
Germans agree to an armistice (cease-fire) Allied Generals meet with German High Command Armistice: Cease-Fire November 11, 1918 at 11:00 a.m. both sides stop fighting
Celebrations break out around the world
A treaty will have to be written and signed to officially end the war Soldiers Celebrating cartoons showing the growing tension in the Balkans Anti-Serbian Propaganda
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