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New France Timeline 1600-1774
Transcript of New France Timeline 1600-1774
Start of French and Iroquois Wars
New France becomes a royal province
Deportation of the Acadians
In 1755, thousands of Acadians were deported to France, Thirteen Colonies, and Louisiana. The British colonists were worried about the French population in Acadia compared to the British, so they made Acadians take an oath of allegiance to the British. In the process of the deportation, many families were separated and many people were killed. Some returned to Acadia years later.
French Come to Louisburg
In 1713, the French came to Louisburg to set up fishing stations after Acadia and Newfoundland were taken by the British by the Treaty of Utrecht. The fishing industry was very profitable, so they set up a fishery at Louisburg. The French also made a fortress for the military there (shown right), which would be captured by the British in 1745 and 1758.
The Quebec Act
In order to prevent rebellions in Quebec, the British government passed the Quebec Act in 1774. The Quebec Act expanded the region's boundaries to become three times larger. It also created a permanent government in Canada. The colonists saw it as an extension of the Proclamation of 1763 and the British saw it as a way to re-establish trade with the French in the New World.
During the Deportation of the Acadians in 1755, Charles de Boishebert (1727-1797) led settlers into the woods in resistance. When the British came back, Boishebert and the settlers fought back, and although they were (greatly) outnumbered, they won the battle and only one person on their side had died, compared to many people who had died on the British side of the battle.
In 1663, Louis XIV made New France a royal province so that France would become the most powerful country in Europe. New France's council, the Sovereign Council, included a governor, a bishop, five councilors, an attorney general, and a clerk
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
In 1632, New France (Acadia, Cape Breton Island and Quebec City) was given back to France, after the English had taken it in 1629.
British Build Halifax
In 1749, The British built the fortress of Halifax on a harbour to protect the British colonists from Native and French raids. The fortress had walls/posts all around it and was built near a sea passage so that it would have been easily defended. The fortress of Halifax was a very powerful base for the British.
The Start of the Hudson's Bay Company
Two French fur traders had an idea to set up trading posts at Hudson's Bay so that the natives could get there by canoe. The French refused so the fur traders, Radisson and Groseilliers, told their idea to the British. The British saw it as a method to increase power and profits from the fur trade, so they agreed. The Company helped both settlers and natives get supplies they didn't have or couldn't produce.
The Capture of Quebec
In 1759, the British troops decided to attack Quebec from upriver to cut off the town's supply of water. The site of this battle is now the Plains of Abraham. The French were at a disadvantage at the Plains of Abraham because they didn't have any experience fighting on open fields.
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain, also known as "The father of New France", created a settlement called Quebec City after finding an abandoned village. The French brought their language and culture with them
to Quebec. In 1609, he made friendly relations with the Huron, Algonquin, and the Montagnais. The Iroquois were the French's enemy. This started alliances with the Algonquin and French.
In 1641, the Iroquois wanted to expand their territory and take over the fur trade and monopolies, and the fur trade business depended on beaver pelts. This war was known as the "Beaver Wars" for that reason. The war lasted 60 years until a peace treaty called "Great Peace of Montreal" was signed in 1701.
Treaty of Paris and Proclamation of 1763
In 1763 in Europe, war between Britain and France ended when a peace treaty, the Treaty of Paris, was signed. The British would keep most of New France and Acadia. Quebec was made smaller so that the Natives could have enough land to hunt and farm for themselves, and so that the British keep their friendly relations with the Natives. The people were still allowed to teach and learn French and Native languages in the schools. The same year, a proclamation was made by the British to make Quebec more like Britain and to attract settlers from England to New France. Quebec was made smaller so that Britain could keep relations with the Natives and so their land doesn't get taken away from them. The Proclamation also had all schools in New France teach English, but they could still teach French as well.