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Waves are formed
when there is some
repeated disturbance, like a vibration from an earthquake
Mechanical waves need a "medium"
to travel through. It could be a solid, liquid or gas.
Waves are classified by the way they move. We can have surface, longitudinal, or transverse waves.
Transverse: The wave moves from left to right, but medium moves up and down.
Longitudinal: The wave moves from left to right along with the medium. Think Slinky! Sound waves work like this, too
Surface: This wave travels back and forth between two surfaces like an ocean wave between water and air.
If you were a surfer, you would time when the next wave would roll in. Since waves repeat a regular motion, we say they have periodic motion and that the time it takes for one wave is one period.
When these cycles are counted over a certain time frame, we call that frequency which is measured in Hertz (Hz)
If you increase the frequency of a wave,
you decrease the wavelength! Remember, wavelength is from one point to the same point on the next wave.
The speed of a wave is found by multiplying the wavelength and the frequency or dividing distance traveled by time.
Amplitude is how high above or below the rest position the wave falls. The higher the amplitude, the higher the energy of the wave.
Reflection: if a wave hits something that it cannot pass through, it simply turns around and travels at the same pace in the other direction
Refraction: If a wave goes from one medium to another, it will bend. Think of putting a pencil in a glass of water.
Interference: When more than one wave hit each other, they either are constructive and produce a bigger wave or are destructive and produce a smaller wave.
Standing Wave: This kind of wave appears to be stationary as it moves through a medium. Think of how a guitar sting looks when it's plucked.
Where there is no displacement, we call that a node. The areas with the highest displacement are called antinodes.
Sound, a longitudinal wave.
Fun Fact: Sound (and other mechanical waves) travel faster when particles are closer together! So my question is: Would sound travel fastest in a solid, liquid or gas?
If I asked you the difference between sound intensity and loudness, what would you say? Which one varies from person to person?
Intensity is an actual
is the unit.
Loudness is how you perceive the volume.
Ex: If someone whispers, it is not a high dB level, but if it is right in your ear, it could still be loud.
Ex: Your grandparents and you might have different interpretations of what 'loud music' is.
-Affected by health, age, how your brain interprets the waves, etc.
Pitch: How you perceive the frequency of a sound wave. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch.
Another Fun Fact: Ever wonder why an ambulance sounds higher pitched coming towards you, but lower pitched as it drives away? It is caused by the Doppler Effect, where sound is literally bunched up ahead of the vehicle and spread out behind. This alters the frequency