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Einstein and Special Theory of Relativity
Transcript of Einstein and Special Theory of Relativity
1921 - Nobel Prize for the Photoelectric Effect
Special and General Relativity
Brownian motion (diffusion)
Photon Theory (wave-particle duality)
Quantum Theory of a monatomic gas (BEC) Einstein’s Annus mirabilis 14 March 1879–18 April 1955
German-born Swiss-American theoretical physicist The paper, "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light" Einstein proposed the idea of energy quanta.
"Energy, during the propagation of a ray of light, is not continuously distributed over steadily increasing spaces, but it consists of a finite number of energy quanta localised at points in space, moving without dividing and capable of being absorbed or generated only as entities." On September 27 - "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?", in which Einstein developed an argument for arguably the most famous equation in the field of physics: E = mc². Einstein considered the equivalency equation to be of paramount importance because it showed that a massive particle possesses an energy, the "rest energy", distinct from its classical kinetic and potential energies. Mass Energy Equivalence "In this paper it will be shown that, according to the molecular kinetic theory of heat, bodies of a microscopically visible size suspended in liquids must, as a result of thermal molecular motions, perform motions of such magnitudes that they can be easily observed with a microscope. It is possible that the motions to be discussed here are identical with so-called Brownian molecular motion" These four articles contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space, time, and matter 1905 is coined as an extraordinary year for Einstein, The Photoelectric Effect http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=Photoelectric_Effect Brownian Motion The article "On the Motion of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid, as Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat" describes a stochastic (random movement) model of Brownian motion. Special Relativity Theory All uniform motion is relative - the laws of physics are the same for all frames of reference
nothing can travel faster than the speed of light The Aether Theory Michelson–Morley experiment The Most famous failed experiment - uses diffraction of sodium light to detect Luminiferous Aether.
Results of experiment - No Aether detected propsed medium for which light propagated
Huygens used this idea to describe the creation of wavelets, but Newton and other rejected it, not based upon any subsantial evidence. Combines space and time into one metric, or fabric
of 4 dimenions - Mass is a distortion of spacetime
Movement in spacetime, distorts the metric v << c - everyday velocities (non relativisitc) v ~ c - objects moving near the speed of light are considered relativistic speeds The Large Hadron Collider
accelerates protons at .999999c,
3 m/s shy of the speed of light! Simultaneity postulates of SRT Proof of Einstein's Special Relativity Theory