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Copy of Ideals of Beauty 1920-1960 1960-Present

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Dina Selvadoro

on 27 October 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Ideals of Beauty 1920-1960 1960-Present

1950
1920
1970
The Ideals of Beauty
1920-1960
1960-Present

By: Meghan Berry, Nicole Boyer and Cherry Lu
Introduction
1930
1940
1960
1980
1990
Present
Conclusion
What are the ideals of beauty?

Why do ideals change, what impacts them?


- Social factors
- Political
- Economical
- Esthetic
- Subjective
Main changes that we see in fashion illustrations that are the effect of the change in ideals over time.

- Clothes
- Hairstyles
- Proportions
- Silhouette
- Stance
- Facial Expressions and depiction
- Colour usage
- Media type
Science and Technology

1962
"Space Wars" First Computer Game Invented

Space Exploration
1969
Apollo 11, the first human spaceflight landed on the Moon.
* a new kind of beauty icon, the model-as-superstar
* near-sickly skinny
Short hair
Dark eyes paired with pale lips
(By the late '60s, no makeup at all)
Pop Culture -- Rock 'n' Roll
Beatles -- "Mop Tops"
Hippie Movement
Counterculture/social revolution;

Anti-war movement
* The Cold War:
* The Vietnam War

Second-wave feminism
the women's liberation movement
the more mainstream feminist groups
Sassoon
A sign of Black Pride
Afro
Hair Styles
"Space Age"
Audrey Hepburn
Shrimpton
Twiggy
* 1952-- The Neo Edwardians, Teddy Boys or Teds are seen around London
* a group of young men who rejected the shabby, but functional clothes styles worn by their fathers
* by 1958 was fading rapidly as teenagers fixed on new fashions influenced by American pop and cinema culture and a nod to the Italians.
The Growth of Teenagers as a Market Force in 1950's Society
Ponytail
Teens clothes
Poodle Skirt
Music and Dance
Rock 'n' Roll
Swing dance
Marilyn Monroe
Marlon Brando
TV affects all aspects of American culture.
"Television affects what we wear, the music we listen to, what we eat, and the news we receive."
1927 Cover for Vogue by Pierre Morgue
She's in a skier's outfit that would
make it hard to distinguish her from
her male counterpart.

Her towering above the man is
an interesting position to have
depicted her in.
- Women were becoming more liberated. In America they now had the right to vote. It was post WWI and women had proven how capable they are.

- No longer were women seen as feeble and sickly as with the Victorian eras.

- Playing sports, having jobs and financial independent, dancing, drinking and voting were all things that women could now do.

- Women started flattening their chests, cutting their hair short and playing alongside the men.
Liberation of Women
The Gibson Girl Look, popular just ten years prior
- This was the first time in centuries that the un-corsetted female body was proposed as a viable option.

- This period was the most radical change in apparel in appearance to take place in such a short time.

- Waistlines dropped, and women were suddenly not “S” shaped any more, but rather more tube like.
1920’s- Radical Changes
The ideal beauty of the 1920s had

- Heavily defined eyes

-A delicate mouth featuring exaggerated cupid’s bow lips

- Short hair although usually curled and feminine

- A flat, boyish figure

- A long neck and a youthful joie de vivre.
Louise Brooks, an actress that popularized the look of the times.
- The two main fashion ideals of the time were the look of the Flapper, and that of the Garçonne.

- Art culture and fashion was all the rage, and by 1913 the motion picture had captured everyone’s imagination.

- Film stars propagated the look of the time more so than had ever been available before this technology.
The Roaring 20’s
Illustration by Georges Barbier
- Post war everyone seemed to be doing well financially. America seized on this economic boom and partied hard.

- The 20’s was filled with parties, lavish décor and fashion, drinking, dancing and having a good time.

- Ethnic and oriental influences were huge. King tut’s tomb had been discovered in 1925 and Egyptomania crazed the world.

-An appreciation for the minimal look, cubism, and a nod to Grecian art that depicted serene women in long flowing robes in simple lines was prominent.
Living life large
Desirable and exclusive-
Vionnet Bias draped gown
Practical Fashions of the times
The frivolity of the 1920’s continued on into the early part of the 30’s but soon faced a harsh reality with the onset of the Great Depression.

- Due to limited funds, women had to make due with what little they had.

- Fashions were constructed in simple styles with minimal fabric.

- Vionnet bias draped gowns were all the rage among the fashionable.

- Those with less money made due with removable collars and cuffs to keep their wardrobe fresh.

- To have dressed extravagantly during this time would have been in poor taste.
1930’s -Party’s Over People
- Women had to become practical, supportive, lovely, soft and romantic, serene and put together.

- They could no longer play around like young men, they had to support their husbands and families.

- To lift spirits in dour times, fanciful hats and cosmetics were greatly employed.

- If you couldn’t afford a new dress, maybe a lipstick will tide you over.
Literally putting on a brave face
Actress Myrna Loy, the loveliest lady of all
Frilly lovely lady looks
- Hemlines became longer.

- Styles became more flattering to the female form

-Waistlines returned to their natural position.

- Hair was styled in soft waves.

- Brows were plucked and arched to add delicacy to the face.

- Lips were made up into rococo curves.

- A floral scent was indispensable.
Lovely ladies, comfort in dire times
Christian Berard Illustrates fun and fanciful fashions,
Allowing women to dream.
Typical everyday wear of the 30s
It’s good to have a little meat on your bones
- There was the idea that you could be too skinny during the 30’s- if you were poor you couldn’t afford as much to eat and the idea of not looking too frail was ideal.

- Illustration and ideals were divided among the everyday fashions and the high couture fashion.

- There was a realism depicted in retail advertising and a more dream like “we’re not in a depression” editorial style.
- Hitler had to go invade Poland in 1939 and send the whole world into WWII.

- Women were working together in factories in hard labour jobs making planes, ships and tanks for the war efforts.

- Clothing became practical for work and women started wearing slacks more regularly.

- Fabric was rationed and making due became the dictator of style possibilities.

- Waist lines were accentuated, and broad shoulders were in.

- Women often were wearing uniforms during this time and wanted to portray themselves as strong and capable, like the men.
1940s- She’s got it
- Women were encouraged to always look their best- to keep the morale of the men at war high. “Beauty is your duty…none but the fair deserve the brave.”

- Magazines encouraged looking “gay” “pretty” and “romantic”

- Cosmetic sales soared and women grew their hair long and flowing, tucking it back in a snood or bandana when at work.

-To be unmade up during this time would have been considered un-patriotic.
They had to be beautiful and Strong!
Even names of hairdos were supportive such as "Victory Rolls"
Betty Grable, the most popular pin-up girl of WWII
- Pin ups and movie stars again were popular- any distraction was welcome.

- These women were ever promoting the idea of “pleasing the fighting men” with accentuated feminine figures, soft features, full lips, and flowing hair.

- Real women were expected to look like the girl next door, fresh faced and genuine, with a hint of sophistication.

- Feminine curves were accentuated with girdles and bras- foreshadowing the perky cone bras that were to come.
Support our troops, wear your support garments ladies
Jacques Demachy 1943
Hats were the main outlet of fashionable expression in wartime Paris
Fanciful decoration defied the dreariness of war.
1947 Illustration of Dior's "New Look"
by Christian Berard
- Realism was big in Illustration during this time as men wanted to get as good as the real deal in their magazines.

- Illustrations again were divided between “real life” and high fashion, but were united in the idea of depicting feminine women, who were poised an unruffled by this “war” business going on.

- High fashion was looking to shed the doldrums of the depression and war- in 1947 Christian Dior came out with his “New Look” which invigorated the fairly drab and utilitarian clothing of the previous decades.

- Full skirts and narrow waists took over material saving straight skirts and boxy jackets.
"Asian Princess" by Erté
"Egyptomania" Palmolive Advertisement
Events Defining the 80's
Cosmetic sales were through the roof
Ridiculous hats were in
Magazines catered to the quiet home life
81 MTV
81 AIDS cases were being reported
82 Liposuction surgery successful
82 Hooters established in Florida
83 Vanessa Williams wins Miss America
83 Sony Camcorder invented
83 Cocaine invented in the Bahamas
88 Lip Injections became popular
89 Photoshop released
An interesting Advertisement
Beauty Trends of the 80's
Actress, Judy Garland
personified the
ideals of the time
Everything was done
to please the men
All about exercise
Everything done in excess
Women viewed as powerhouses
A fresh faced pin up
woman awaits a strong
man to help with a
flat tire.
Looking for Distraction
We must think about how our ideals have changed over time, and why.
Fashion Illustrations of the 80's
See if you can pick out any of the ideals we highlighted, when looking at the faces of these popular celebrities of their time!
Patrick Nagel
Fashion Illustrations of the 80's
Rene Gruau
Events Defining the 90's
92 Vancouver couple discover using botox to fix frown lines
93 Internet becomes available
96 TV Parental Guide system put in effect
Beauty Trends of the 90's
Heroin Chic
Minimalist/Androgynous
Glamazon
Grunge
Fashion Illustrations of the 90's
David Downton
1950s beauty trends
* curls, waves and bouffants
* pompadour
* full skirt
Beauty Icon
Fashion Illustrations of the 90's
Ruben Toledo
Significant fashion trends of the 1970s
Skirt Lengths -- Micro, Mini or Maxi
Flared Trousers, Bell Bottoms and Trouser Suits
Leisure suits
1970s fashion illustration by Rene Gruau
70s Disco Fashion
1970s Punk Fashion
* The ripped jeans, torn t-shirts, scrappy haircuts, and worn and torn leather jackets
* Self Mutilation and Body Piercings
* Loads of Hair or No Hair
* Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren Open Seditionaries Shop
Events Defining the 2000's
03 MySpace
04 Facebook
05 Youtube
Beauty Trends of the 2000's
* Hot pants look and Spandex tops
* Shiny clinging Lycra stretch disco pants in hot strident shiny colours with stretch sequin bandeau tops
* Gold lame, leopard skin and
stretch halter jumpsuits and
white clothes that glowed in
Ultra Violet lights capture the
70s Disco fashion perfectly
Not a unified look
Push the limit
Extreme Thinness
Vintage '70s Vogue Illustration
Antonio Lopez
Fashion Illustrations of the 2000's
Jennifer Lilya
Fashion Illustrations of the 2000's
Francois Berthoud
Super Seventies -- Fashion Illustration
Rene Gruau
Social Movement
Icon
References:
Books:
Torre, Rosemary. 20th-century Fashion Illustration: The Feminine Ideal. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2011. Print.
Thesander, Marianne. The Feminine Ideal. London: Reaktion, 1997. Print.
Online Article:
Rudd, Maddie. "Western Standards of Beauty: An Illustrated Timeline." HubPages. Hub Pages, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2013.
Other:
Notes taken by Julie Higginson, at an Ivan Sayers lecture on the History of Fashion, on Saltspring in 2007
Images:
All images were sources from the web.
Various sources included Pinterest and Google image search the following blogs were also sourced
Photoshopped woman georgiehoon.blogspot.com
Beauty warning sign ahotbath.co.uk
Antonio Lopez sketch www.girvin.com
The American Venus sfsilentfilmfestival.blogspot.com
Golfing women fuzzylizzie.com
Vogue Ski Cover www.advertisingarchives.co.uk
1900s woman www.twigsstudioblog.com
Louise Brooks www.demeterclarc.com
Typical 20’s woman http://historicalideals.tumblr.com/
Georges Barbier party illustrations prints.bl.uk
Egyptomania Palmolive Ad historymasquerade.blogspot.com
Ertes Asian Princess www.flickr.com
Practical 1930’s Fashions www.pastreunited.com
Harpers bazaar cover may 1932 www.odeany.com
1930’s Perfect woman www.nerve.com
Crazy hat alisonkerr.wordpress.com
La femme chez elle magazine www.etsy.com
1930’s fashion fashionner.info
Christian Berard Illustration giantpantsofthe30s.tumblr.com
Rosie the riveter en.wikipedia.org
1940s fashions www.buffalo.edu
Judy Garland makeup ad vintagevenus.blogspot.com
Hair product ad www.vintageadbrowser.com
40’s hairstyles misspeppervintage.blogspot.com
Betty Grable hot1940shairstyles.com
Pin up girl www.rollitup.org

Ad Media. (n.d.). Media and Body Image. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://www.admedia.com/media-and-body-image.php

Buzzle. (n.d.). 1980’s Timeline: Important Events of the 1980’s. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/1980s-timeline-important-events-of-the-1980s.html

David Downton. (n.d.). Biography. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://www.daviddownton.com/biography.html

Do Something. (n.d.). 11 Facts About Body Image. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-body-image

Examiner. (n.d.). Top 10 Historical Moments of the 1990s. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://www.examiner.com/article/top-10-historical-moments-of-the-1990s

Future Timeline. (n.d.). 2000 Timeline of Events. Retrieved April 4, 2013, form, http://www.futuretimeline.net/21stcentury/2000-2009.htm

Google. (n.d.). 100 Years of Fashion Illustration. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://books.google.ca/books?id=MDU-CAoEqeEC&pg=PA272&lpg=PA272&dq=fashion+illustrators+of+the+90's&source=bl&ots=0QM0AKXGKl&sig=3GPPifvgNOZO_9sfyCnTu_9sP_c&hl=en&sa=X&ei=57NcUeDEBIGbiALyyYHADQ&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=fashion%20illustrators%20of%20the%2090's&f=false

Kidzworld. (n.d.). 90’s Timeline. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.kidzworld.com/article/4256-1990s-timeline-pg-2

Lone Star College. (n.d.). American Cultural History – Decade 1991-1999. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade90.html

Secret Weapons. (n.d.). Jennifer Lilya – Fashion Illustrator. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://secretweapons.fashionarium.com/post/993539483/jennifer-lilya-fashion-illustrator

StyleCaster. (n.d.). A Timeline of Sexy Defined Through the Ages. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://stylecaster.com/timeline-sexy-defined-through-ages/

Telegraph. (n.d.). Rene Gruau: a new look at the influential Dior illustrator. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://fashion.telegraph.co.uk/news-features/TMG8079901/Rene-Gruau-a-new-look-at-the-influential-Dior-illustrator.html

The Fashion Spot Canada. (n.d.). Beauty Ideals Throughout the Ages. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.thefashionspot.com/beauty/news/171133-beauty-ideals-throughout-the-ages/?slide=8

The People History. (n.d.). What Happened in the 1990’s featuring News, Popular Culture, Prices and Technology. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/1990s.html

Trendland. (n.d.). Patrick Nagel 80’s Fashion Illustrations. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://trendland.com/patrick-nagel-80s-fashion-illustrations/#

UKHairdressers. (n.d.). The History of Beauty Through the Ages. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.ukhairdressers.com/history%20of%20beauty.asp

Victoria and Albert Museum. (n.d.). Fashion Drawing & Illustration: 1980s. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/f/fashion-drawing-and-illustration-1980s/

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Adobe Photoshop. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoshop

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Art Deco. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_deco

50s http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Q30Na-HXFGY/TW0lgYEL-LI/AAAAAAAABvU/kcmRcASpcKI/s1600/IMG_6099.JPG

50s fashion http://www.fashion.lilithezine.com/images/1950s-Fashion-06.jpg

50s teddy http://blog.salonbuzz.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Teddy-Boys.jpg
50s http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-8DyrnNKx4m4/Trw75L2rUmI/AAAAAAAAAZI/uCN7uScWNh0/s640/prada-teddy-boys.jpg
marilyn http://all-that-is-interesting.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/iconic-photos-1950-marilyn-monroe.jpg

shrimpton http://blog.egocloset.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/lg_5088161_Jean_Shrimpton_in_a_frilly_shi.jpg

twiggy http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Twiggy+Lawson&Form=IQFRDR#view=detail&id=55325FBFC9FFF0AD15366AC0647313ACEC601C5A&selectedIndex=0

doe eye http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-RuNir3k-y7A/Tvm2Np1FF9I/AAAAAAAAAaE/iwcg8OPiz7s/s1600/twiggyy.jpg

mini skirt http://www.winterfashions.net/pictures/2012/10/60s-Fashion_10.jpg

60s swinging http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7028/6532241821_985f0eefbd_z.jpg

60s mod http://subangrechell.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/60s-style-and-fashion-ideas-large.jpg

beatles http://comicstripsandlunch.blogspot.ca/2011/01/beatles-image-early-60s.html

afro http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-8hSIStU7uNY/TYZt8fm63yI/AAAAAAAAA6w/_qB6vD5REGI/s1600/Afro.jpg

The 1960s-1960 L'écho de la mode illustration http://www.flickr.com/photos/april-mo/8194754591

60s peace https://i.istockimg.com/file_thumbview_approve/2976298/2/stock-illustration-2976298-nine-60s-icons-on-a-rainbow-background.jpg

60s skirt http://stylesplash.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/0img_3050.jpg

70s bell bottom http://cdn.glamcheck.com/fashion/files/2011/03/70s-fashion-bell-bottoms.jpg

disco men http://www.fashionworld2012-13.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/70s-disco-fashion-men.jpg

disco women http://www.fashionworld2012-13.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/33842.jpg

1970s fashion illustration by Rene Gruau. http://superseventies.tumblr.com/post/13342578286/photography-designer-fashion-clothes-internet-shopping-h

70 maxi http://vintagepatterns4sale.ecrater.com/p/15708099/70s-maxi-skirt-high-waisted

70 sex pistols http://s3.amazonaws.com/files.posterous.com/temp-2011-08-01/nclrkqmzyJblhynsudcHtGpGnuhsxmmzCjaFblchCgABDFcwffkEseujnbwc/sex_pistols_-_live_in_concert_a.jpg?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJFZAE65UYRT34AOQ&Expires=1365491737&Signature=NluZO0OXTKT8Qvpctsn6VaTR6i0%3D#the%20sex%20pistols

70 antonio http://claireverity.wordpress.com/2011/10/29/70s-illustrations/

70 vogue http://wouldyourockthis.com/blog/2011/12/vintage-70s-vogue-fashion-illustration/

http://www.fashion-era.com/1950s/1950s_4_teenagers_teddy_boys.htm
http://www.loti.com/fifties_favorite_50s%20-dances.htm
http://www.fashion-era.com/1950s/1950s_9_timeline_chart.htm
http://www.fashion-era.com/punks_fashion_history1.htm
http://www.fashion-era.com/1970s.htm

http://stylecaster.com/timeline-sexy-defined-through-ages/
http://barneygrant.tripod.com/p-erceptions.htm
http://comicstripsandlunch.blogspot.ca/2011/01/beatles-image-early-60s.html

References
References:
Books:
Torre, Rosemary. 20th-century Fashion Illustration: The Feminine Ideal. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2011. Print.
Thesander, Marianne. The Feminine Ideal. London: Reaktion, 1997. Print.
Online Article:
Rudd, Maddie. "Western Standards of Beauty: An Illustrated Timeline." HubPages. Hub Pages, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2013.
Other:
Notes taken by Julie Higginson, at an Ivan Sayers lecture on the History of Fashion, on Saltspring in 2007
Images:
All images were sources from the web.
Various sources included Pinterest and Google image search the following blogs were also sourced
Photoshopped woman georgiehoon.blogspot.com
Beauty warning sign ahotbath.co.uk
Antonio Lopez sketch www.girvin.com
The American Venus sfsilentfilmfestival.blogspot.com
Golfing women fuzzylizzie.com
Vogue Ski Cover www.advertisingarchives.co.uk
1900s woman www.twigsstudioblog.com
Louise Brooks www.demeterclarc.com
Typical 20’s woman http://historicalideals.tumblr.com/
Georges Barbier party illustrations prints.bl.uk
Egyptomania Palmolive Ad historymasquerade.blogspot.com
Ertes Asian Princess www.flickr.com
Practical 1930’s Fashions www.pastreunited.com
Harpers bazaar cover may 1932 www.odeany.com
1930’s Perfect woman www.nerve.com
Crazy hat alisonkerr.wordpress.com
La femme chez elle magazine www.etsy.com
1930’s fashion fashionner.info
Christian Berard Illustration giantpantsofthe30s.tumblr.com
Rosie the riveter en.wikipedia.org
1940s fashions www.buffalo.edu
Judy Garland makeup ad vintagevenus.blogspot.com
Hair product ad www.vintageadbrowser.com
40’s hairstyles misspeppervintage.blogspot.com
Betty Grable hot1940shairstyles.com
Pin up girl www.rollitup.org

Ad Media. (n.d.). Media and Body Image. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://www.admedia.com/media-and-body-image.php

Buzzle. (n.d.). 1980’s Timeline: Important Events of the 1980’s. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/1980s-timeline-important-events-of-the-1980s.html

David Downton. (n.d.). Biography. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://www.daviddownton.com/biography.html

Do Something. (n.d.). 11 Facts About Body Image. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-body-image

Examiner. (n.d.). Top 10 Historical Moments of the 1990s. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://www.examiner.com/article/top-10-historical-moments-of-the-1990s

Future Timeline. (n.d.). 2000 Timeline of Events. Retrieved April 4, 2013, form, http://www.futuretimeline.net/21stcentury/2000-2009.htm

Google. (n.d.). 100 Years of Fashion Illustration. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://books.google.ca/books?id=MDU-CAoEqeEC&pg=PA272&lpg=PA272&dq=fashion+illustrators+of+the+90's&source=bl&ots=0QM0AKXGKl&sig=3GPPifvgNOZO_9sfyCnTu_9sP_c&hl=en&sa=X&ei=57NcUeDEBIGbiALyyYHADQ&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=fashion%20illustrators%20of%20the%2090's&f=false

Kidzworld. (n.d.). 90’s Timeline. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.kidzworld.com/article/4256-1990s-timeline-pg-2

Lone Star College. (n.d.). American Cultural History – Decade 1991-1999. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade90.html

Secret Weapons. (n.d.). Jennifer Lilya – Fashion Illustrator. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://secretweapons.fashionarium.com/post/993539483/jennifer-lilya-fashion-illustrator

StyleCaster. (n.d.). A Timeline of Sexy Defined Through the Ages. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://stylecaster.com/timeline-sexy-defined-through-ages/

Telegraph. (n.d.). Rene Gruau: a new look at the influential Dior illustrator. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://fashion.telegraph.co.uk/news-features/TMG8079901/Rene-Gruau-a-new-look-at-the-influential-Dior-illustrator.html

The Fashion Spot Canada. (n.d.). Beauty Ideals Throughout the Ages. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.thefashionspot.com/beauty/news/171133-beauty-ideals-throughout-the-ages/?slide=8

The People History. (n.d.). What Happened in the 1990’s featuring News, Popular Culture, Prices and Technology. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/1990s.html

Trendland. (n.d.). Patrick Nagel 80’s Fashion Illustrations. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://trendland.com/patrick-nagel-80s-fashion-illustrations/#

UKHairdressers. (n.d.). The History of Beauty Through the Ages. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from http://www.ukhairdressers.com/history%20of%20beauty.asp

Victoria and Albert Museum. (n.d.). Fashion Drawing & Illustration: 1980s. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/f/fashion-drawing-and-illustration-1980s/

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Adobe Photoshop. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoshop

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Art Deco. Retrieved April 4, 2013, from, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_deco
Full transcript