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Chapter 16:

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by

Eileen Brown

on 2 December 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 16:

Chapter 16:
Life at the Turn of the 20th Century

Technology and City Life
More skyscrapers = more space
Made possible by steel
building frame and elevator cables

Louis Sullivan
- The Wainwright Building
St. Louis, MO (1890-1891)
Daniel Burnham
- The Flat Iron Building
NYC, (1902)

The Spread of Mass Culture
Huge increase in literacy rates
Advancements in printing
More books, magazines, and newspapers
Faster production at lower costs
Mills produced cheaper paper
Higher speeds, printed on both sides
Brooklyn Bridge Promenade = inspiration to city planners
Why?
Airplanes
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Bicycle shop owners in Dayton, OH
Tried to create engines that would support a craft above the ground
Built gliders and then modified engines
Photography
New techniques by
George Eastman
Replaced glass plates with a flexible film
Sent out for development
1888 the Kodak Camera
Camera came with a roll of film
Film was mailed to Eastman's studio/factory
Amateur photographers and photojournalism
Expanding Public Education
Before the Civil War no formal education system
States began passing laws to require school attendance (1865-95)
Ages 8 to 14
Rote memorization and corporal punishment
Kindergarten was originally child care
More public schools
A lot of public secondary schools were only for white students only
Universities for black students opened post Civil War
William Torrey Harris
- education reformer and philosopher
Curriculum was to incorporate more arts and science
Wanted teachers to receive professional training
Kindergarten was included and worked on creating more secondary schools
New tech and managerial skills needed
Why?
High schools were created
Vocational and specialist courses
Public schools had mandatory reading from the King James Bible
Upsets Catholics
Development of parochial schools
Adult immigrants attended night school
Citizenship and learn English
Some employers established programs/courses to Americanize workers
Immigrants were encouraged to go to school
Americanization
What was Jane Addams' opinion?
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute
- teaching, agricultural, domestic, and mechanical courses
Booker T. Washington
- Accept segregation as long as there were equal opportunities and laws
Once labor skills and economic achievements are proven racism will end
W. E. B. Du Bois
disagreed with Washington's approach
No more gradual inclusion
Encouraged African Americans to get a liberal arts education
Well educated leaders in the black communities
The Niagara Movement
Sports
Bicycles were male only until a safer and easier frame was created
Women - new clothes and more independence
The Dawn of Mass Culture
Across the country more people are able to partake in leisure activities
Why?
Amusement Parks - small playgrounds and playing fields
Most of the time outside of the city
Coney Island 1884
Ferris wheel, roller coaster
Trollies would make special trips
The Spread of Mass Culture
Mass circulation of newspapers
Joseph Pulitzer
- New York World (1883)
Sin, Sex, Sensation
New additions to the newspaper: comics, sports, women's news
William Randolph Hearst
- New York Morning Journal (1898)
Competition over headlines
Literature and Fine Arts
Crime and Westerns
Copies of books sold for 10 cents -
dime novels
Most Americans were not interested in raising cultural standards
Mark Twain
is remembered as one of the most successful of the time period
Also satirized the time period
What does the Gilded Age mean?

The Chain Store
Same merchandise and same ownership
Goods sold for less for buying in quantity and limiting personal service
1870s -
F. W. Woolworth
Inexpensive products = impulse shopping

Formal art academies = institution in Europe for over a century
American art was looked down on
Many American's studied and worked abroad
The Ash Can School
- led by Thomas Eakins and Robert Henri (early 1900s)
Painted urban scenes and daily life for the working people
New Way to Sell Goods
Department store
Marshall Field
, Chicago
Women were making the purchases
Cater to the women
Different floors would be different specialized departments
Sell goods that were less expensive but reliable
Increase in advertising
Aided in the creation of modern consumerism
Catalogs made merchandise available to small towns and rural areas
Sears Roebuck and Company
(1886)
Rural free delivery

- post delivered packages to every home
RFD (1896)
Modern tennis started in North Wales 1873
America - 1874 - introduced by a socialite
Spectator Sports - boxing and baseball
The Great Chicago Fire
Two days in October 1871
Central business district
4 miles long x 1 mile wide
About 300 killed
U.S. cities and London provided aid
Reconstruction = economic development and population growth
Chicago World's Columbian Exposition - 1893
Burnham and Olmstead
Almost 200 temporary buildings
The White City
Electrified by George Westinghouse
46 countries participated; 6 month event
The Ferris Wheel
Jacob Riis
1890 - "How the Other Half Lives"
Slums of the Lower East Side in NYC
Street children
Living and working conditions are now seen by the wealthy

Fredrick Law Olmstead
Planned urban parks
Designed Central Park
Aided by Calvert Vaux
Oasis in a city
Planned landscaping for D.C. and St. Louis
Chicago is made over in 1870s
1871 - The Great Chicago Fire
1893 - World's Fair
Segregation and Discrimination
Southern states imposed new voting laws
Literacy tests with harder questions for black voters
Poll Tax
- yearly tax that had to be paid in order to vote
Most blacks were poor sharecroppers
Grandfather Clause
- you can vote if your (grand)father had voted before 1867
Why is the year important?
Protected whites who failed literacytests or couldn't pay the poll tax
Supreme Court did nothing to stop these laws
Southern states also passed segregation laws
Separate public and private facilities
Schools, hospitals, parks, etc.
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) - separation of races in public places was legal
No violation of the 14th Amendment
"separate but equal"
Named
Jim Crow Laws
after a minstrel act
First successful flight December 17, 1903; Kitty Hawk, NC
Lasted 12 seconds - three tries later lasted 1 minute
Lewis Hine
"Documentary" photography = social change
Ellis Island and NY Harbor
Steel making neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, PA
1908 - Hired by the National Child Labor Committee
Served as visual aids to get laws passed
Ida B. Wells
Born into slavery, grew up in the south
1890s begins career as a journalist and publishers
Political and racial issues
Lynching in America
Asked D.C. for reforms
Ban on black exhibitors at the 1893 World's Fair
Campaigned for women's suffrage
Full transcript