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Building Integration of Solar Energy

A presentation assignment about Building Integration of Solar Energy. Bachelor of Quantity Surveying, Taylor's University
by

Cecilia Tie

on 13 September 2015

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Transcript of Building Integration of Solar Energy

INTRODUCTION
For years, electricity has been harnessed through the use of coal, oil & natural gas, which are non-renewable resource. In its name it was known to be limited, therefore mankind needed to develop new ways to make electric power & those ways were to use nature such as the waves, wind & of course the sun. Ever since its discovery in 1839 solar energy has been the answer for renewable energy resource since it can placed in different environments unlike tidal & wind energy.
Hybrid System
Grid Connecting System
Installation
Ground Mounts
Pole Mounts
Disadvantages
Advantages
CASE-STUDY
Application
Solar Water Heating
Introduction (Sun-Moon Mansion)
Location:
Solar Valley, Economic Development

Zone, Dezhou City, northwest China
Function:
Exhibition centers, Scientific research facilities, Meeting rooms, Hotel, acted as venue for 4th International Solar City Congress
Building Floor Area:
75,000 m2
Solar Panels:
5,024.6 m2
Owned by:
Himin Solar Energy Group
Construction Budget:
US$ 16.28 million
Completion Date:
1st September 2008
Known as the largest solar powered structure in the world
Mechanisms
Has 5 photovoltaic power generating systems connected to its power grid
Adopts more than
30
types of integrated technologies and features such as:
Solar water heating
Solar air-conditioning
Energy-saving glass
Building-enclosed insulation
The mansion's doors, windows & walls also adopts BIPV
Uses neon lights at night

Glass tubes stacked for solar water heating
Conservation
Flush Mounts
Photovoltaic Power System :

Photovoltaic power system (PV) converts sunlight directly into electricity required for the building.

PV systems can be categorized into three types:
Autonomous System
Hybrid System
Grid-connected System

When the Photovoltaic Modules combine with a different source of electric generation
The main structure of hybrid system is the use of two or more different electrical sources.
Requires battery backup
The two principal classifications of hybrid system are single-phase and three-phase DC hybrid system.
Designed to function parallel to and connected directly with the electric grid.
Important components: Inverter & Power conditioning unit.
Requires no battery backup
Supplies electricity directly to buildings or houses.
Effectively reduce the utilization from electricity grid.
Solar thermal system can be used to provide hot water for industrial and residential uses.
The important component in this system is the solar panel, called collector.
The solar collector collects the sunlight and convert it into heat energy.

There are two types of solar thermal system:
- Active Solar Water Heating System
-Passive Solar Water Heating System
Easy to install and suitable for many roof surfaces
Cost is lower.
Resistant to corrosion and very light because aluminium rails are used.
Ground mounts are used when roof is not appropriate for installation.
Soil conditions is the main consent during installation because uneven surface will make the process more challenging.
Ground mounts are higher in cost.
It is suitable for very large solar panels.
Allocated into 3 sub groups:- top, side and pole tracking mounts.
To mount the top part of the pole mount, a prevailing pole with dimensions minimum of 3-8 inches with concrete bed have to be constructed.
Long lasting solar cells-

Solar energy is a renewable source of energy and will continue to produce electricity as long as the sun exists. Although solar energy cannot be produced at night or on cloudy days, it can be used again during daytime.
No pollution-

Solar energy is a non-polluting, clean, reliable and renewable source of electricity. It does not pollute the air. Solar energy does not require radioactive waste.This is perhaps the most important advantage that makes solar energy.
Low Maintenance-

Solar cells generally don’t require any maintenance and runs for a long time. More solar panels can be added from time to time when needed. There are no moving parts in a solar cell, which makes it impossible to really damage them.
Easy Installation-

Solar panels are easy to install and does not require any wires, cords or power resources. Solar panels do not require them and can be installed on the rooftop which means no new space is needed.
Solar energy is getting more cost effective-

The technology for solar energy is developing at an increasing rate. At present, photovoltaic technology is still relatively expensive but the technology is improving and production is increasing.
Accessibility of Solar Panels-

Solar power can generate electricity no matter how isolated the area as long as the sun shines there. Even in areas that are inaccessible to power cables solar power can produce electricity.
Location-
The location of solar panels is of major importance in the generation of electricity. Houses which are covered by trees, landscapes or other buildings may not be suitable enough to produce solar power. In countries such as the UK, the unpredictable climate means that solar energy is also unpredictable as a source of energy.
High cost-
The initial cost of installing a solar energy system can be excessively high for some budgets. The cost of buying and installing solar panel arrays is a bit steep. As new technologies emerge, the cost of solar panels is likely to decrease and then we can see an increase in the use of solar cells to generate electricity.
Installation Area-
For home users, a solar energy installation may not require huge space but for big companies, a large area is required for the system to be efficient in providing a source of electricity. Collectors are usually arranged together especially when electricity is to be produced and used in the same location.
Inefficiency-
Since not all the light from the sun is absorbed by the solar panels, therefore most solar panels have a 40% efficiency rate which means 60% of the sunlight gets wasted and is not connected. New, emerging technologies however have increased the rate of efficiency of solar panels from 40 to 80%.
The Solar Valley
Area: 330 hectres (3 km2)
Budget: US$ 740 million

The planned project will be the BIGGEST solar energy production base in the world.
Includes solar thermal manufacturing base, solar museum, professional testing centre & a PV lighting road.
Built by Himin Group in hopes of being a center for research on renewable energy, a tech hub for clean energy uses.
Already has about
100
companies booking for a space in the area.
BIPV modules adhered to the glass surface do not permit airflow between modules and host structure, resulting in higher operating temperature.
Solar water heating system requires regular examination and maintenance to operate efficiently as the elements might be worn-out over a period of time.
Inspection on pump failure or faulty sensory wires in the system.
Weather-dependent
Possible Problems
Recommendations for Future Improvement
Application of thermoelectric cooling system to cool the temperature of BIPV system
Detailed inspection of thermal flow and behavior in solar collectors of the heating system
Thermal energy storage systems as an alternative option
Battery set-up or large energy storage systems as constant source of electricity during bad weather season
Designed to operate independent of electric utility grid
Requires battery backup
Ensures the building is energy supplied during a utility storage or night
Designed to supply AC and DC electric load
Autonomous System
1. Erecting Scaffold
2. Fitting Roof Anchors
3. Attaching the Frame
4. Installing the Panels
5. Wiring panels on the roof
6. Wiring panels to the inverter
7. Inside the home
Maintenance
Photovoltaic Systems
-Photovoltaic systems need a very little maintenance because they have very few moving parts and high reliability of their components.
-Grid-connected photovoltaic system is made up of PV panels, transformer, inverter and combiner box .
• Photovoltaic panels
A regular visual inspection is a remedy to check for physical damage to any PV module.
Check for dust on the surface of modules.
• Inverter

Check for ventilation condition.
Identifying signs through regular maintenance.
• Battery Bank
A monthly battery test is a remedy for a good performance of PV systems.
Solar Thermal Systems
-Periodic inspections and regular maintenance are required to keep solar thermal system operating efficiently.
-Conditions of solar thermal system that are needed for maintenance are including collector shading, collector soiling, roof penetrations, collector glazing and others.
• Collector
Check for the surfaces of the collectors regularly.
Make sure that no collector shading, soiling and glazing.
• Pumps or blowers
Check that distribution pumps or blowers are functioning.
Listen that the pumps come on when the sun is shining on the collectors after mid-morning.
Management of solar energy systems
Photovoltaic system
Solar Thermal system
The controller starts the circulation pump of the solar circuit as soon as the temperature in the collector is several degrees warmer than the temperature at the bottom of the storage tank.
This transports the solar fluid from the collector to the lower heat exchanger.
The cooled solar fluid then flows back to the collector in the return pipe.
An optimal power management mechanism for grid connected photovoltaic systems with storage is to assist intensive penetration of PV production into the grid by recommending peak shaving service at the lowest cost.
Dynamic Programming can be used to perform optimization and is compared with a simple ruled-based management.
Simulations and real conditions application are carried out on a suitable day.
Conclusion
Solar energy is improving in efficiency & power generating to help advance its industry. Unlike many renewable energy resources solar energy can be used almost anywhere, with the BIPV modules to help existing buildings to use solar energy & everyone can participate in helping to change the environment. Solar energy doesn't just help the environment but can also greatly save cost in the long term.
*Electricity to US¢ rate in China is 7.5 to 10.7kWh
Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Prepared by:
Muhammad Haziq bin Hj Zariful

Hah, u can't delete this, what the fuck are u gonna do about it?
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