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The Discovery of Penicillin
Transcript of The Discovery of Penicillin
How did it happen?
It was a fine morning on September in 1928 and Alexander Flemming was growing lots of bacteria known as
on Petri dishes at the St. Mary's Hospital which is located in London. He decided to go on a summer vacation but before he did, he had forgotten two things. One, he hadn't close the the windows, and two, he didn't pull all of his plates in bleach to sterilize them.
When he came back from his vacation, he noticed that there was an area where staphylococci wasn't growing on. Out of curiosity, he placed his dishes under his microscope and was amazed to see that a mould stopped the normal growth of the staphylococci.
He worked really hard on the mould known as
. He squeezed out some mould juice which he named Penicillin for a test but he couldn't get enough. He also couldn't prove that Penicillin could kill bacteria or cure deadly diseases.
How is it being used now?
Today, Penicillin is now being used as an
which falls in the group of drugs. It fights bacteria in a person's body. It is used to treat different types of infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin was one of the first drugs to treat diseases. Many bacterias are resistant to Penicillin. Penicillin is immune to our body system. Penicillin originated from a type of fungi which is called Penicillium fungi. Penicillin is normally consumed through the mouth or can be injected depending on how serious the disease is. It can also be consumed with these substances such as
and alcohol. Before taking penicillin you must not take it if you are allergic to it, if your pregnant or suffering from kidney or liver problems.
When and who discovered it?
Alexander Flemming was a
and was finding ways to destroy bacteria. He didn't know what was waiting for him, what was he going to find?
Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin in 1928.
An Accidental Discovery
Bacteria growing on Petri dishes.
By 1934 Alexander Fleming gave up to do a different job.
In 1938 Howard Florey and Ernst Chain decided to do some work on penicillin. They brought eight mice together and infected them (on purpose) with staphylococci which would normally kill them. Half of them were given Penicillin and survived but the other four that didn't get treated died.
They went to treat a 43 year old policeman named Albert Alexander, who was dying from blood infection. They gave him Penicillin and within 5 days the policeman was recovered just when all the Penicillin ran out. They tried to help him and they even took some of it from his
but the infection came back and he died.
The two scientists, Florey and Chain weren’t giving up. They collect some more penicillin and used it on a 15 year old boy who had an infection after an operation and he was completely cured. The scientists in America took their mould and brought it to the United States where they made a lot of penicillin so Penicillin will become available to everyone with infectious diseases. The history of infectious diseases changed forever thanks to Florey and Chain but also Alexander Flemming discovery will always be remembered.
What did he do after to improve it?
How would we improve it?
- a biologist who studies bacteria
- a watery, typically yellowish fluid stored in the bladder and discharged through the urethra. It is one of the body's chief means of eliminating excess water and salt, and also contains nitrogen compounds such as urea and other waste substances removed from the blood by the kidneys.
- Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. Under the microscope, they appear round, and form in grape-like clusters. The Staphylococcus genus includes at least 40 species. Of these, nine have two subspecies and one has three subspecies.
- is the source for penicillin, the first antibiotic.
- Probenecid is a drug which enlarges a person's body capacity.
-a medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.
One way we could improve Penicillin is by making an air spray which sprays penicillin. The penicillin gas will evenly fill up the room/house giving it a strong, nice smell. It can remove bacteria and mosses that are flying in the air and are sticking on any surface. It can also heal a person with a certain type of disease. They could breath the gas in and will not hurt their body or they could sniff it through their nose to remove some bacteria living on a person's body without any harm done to the body. Also it will not kill you if you have an overdose of spray within your body. It is very safe for your skin and body system unless you are allergic to it. We think that this is a very helpful little invention because it is compact so that means you can bring it overseas and there is no need for a prescription.
There are Penicillin contained in these tablets and antibiotics