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Networking Fundamentals

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by

Angela Stockton

on 6 March 2014

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Transcript of Networking Fundamentals

Networking Fundamentals
For 8x8 Tier 1 Support
IP Networks
Their IP Addresses all fall within the same "subnet" range
They are all reachable via the same Ethernet layer (switches, cables, hubs)
Private Networks
ALL Private addresses should* use the following formats:
10.
xxx.xxx.xxx
172.16 .
xxx.xxx -
172.31.
xxx.xxx
192.168.
xxx.xxx
Network Address Translation
ALL
private devices on the
same LAN
share
one public IP Address
IP Devices are on the
same network
if...


The IP
Subnet Mask
is a special IP "mask" that a device can apply to a destination IP to determine if that destination address is in the same network as itself...


ALL
networking devices require this in order to
function
:
Private Networks contain devices that are not directly connected to the public internet
- The devices are hidden from the internet by a Router (firewall/NAT)
Allows
private
network address space behind a single
public
IP address
Networking devices are components that are used to connect computers or other electronic devices together so that they can share files and resources
Networking Devices
Repeater/Hub
-
Physical Layer (1)
Switch/Bridge
-
Data Link Layer (2)
Router
-
Network Layer (3)
Gateway
-
Application/Network Layers (7/3)
Networking
ELEMENTS
Training Agenda Topics
IP Networks
Private Networks
Network Address Translation (
NAT
)
Networking Devices
OSI
and
TCP/IP
Models
Both diagrams represent how different protocols come together in order to transmit and receive data between devices
TCP/IP
Protocol Suite

Internet Addresses
IP Address


MAC Address
OSI
and
TCP/IP
Model

Internet Addresses
OSI TCP/IP
Allows computers of different sizes, from different vendors, and running totally different operating systems, to
communicate
with each other
Networking protocols are developed in
layers
Each layer represents some functionality which can be carried out by a certain protocol
The OSI Model
A Closer Look
The OSI Model
Review
TCP/IP Model
A simplified and more recent version of the OSI model
OSI
vs
TCP/IP
OSI and TCP/IP Models are a great way for IT professionals to visualize and troubleshoot a multitude of issues

Usually, you will start troubleshooting from the bottom layer and move up until the issue is identified and resolved
Watch until 9:58
Watch until 12:10
AKA Media Access Control or Hardware Address
Is a 48-bit, hexadecimal address
Contains 12 characters, with numbers and letters A - F
IPv4
-
32-bits
long
Contains 4 octets, with each octet ranging from
0 -255
Can be assigned
automatically
, with DHCP, or
manually
through a Static IP
MAC Address
IP Address
A numerical label for identifying networking devices
A unique hardware address for identifying networking devices
If the destination IP address is not on the same network, data is sent to the network Gateway, in order to route that traffic to a different network
IP Address

Subnet Mask

Gateway

If you know the IP Address of a device, you will know whether it is on a Private network, or connected to the public Internet:
*Per RFC 1918 & RFC 4193
Local Area Network
ALL devices within the same LAN will share 1 public IP Address

Through
NAT Bindings
, devices on the LAN are able to communicate to devices on the public Internet (WAN)

A
NAT Binding
is a mapping of a private
IP:Port
to a public
IP:Port

NAT
is performed by the
Router
Computer #1
192.168.0.2
Computer #2
192.168.0.3
IP Phone #1
192.168.0.4
IP Phone #2
192.168.0.5
Network Printer
192.168.0.6
Public IP:
71.124.26.8
Public IP:
71.124.26.8
Public IP:
71.124.26.8
Public IP:
71.124.26.8
Public IP:
71.124.26.8
NAT Bindings
Private devices in the private address space are mapped to public ports in the
NAT Binding Table
Because there is only 1 Public IP address on a LAN, public ports are the key for mapping to internal IP Addresses
For example:
Private Address 192.168.0.100:
3000
= Public Address 63.209.0.56:
9000
Private Address 192.168.0.101:
3000
= Public Address 63.209.0.56:
10000

What are the 4 primary functions of a Router?
Firewalls
DHCP
NAT
DNS
Full transcript