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Personal names: nicknames, first names, pseudonyms, surnames. Historical development of personal names in England. English place names in the world.
Transcript of Personal names: nicknames, first names, pseudonyms, surnames. Historical development of personal names in England. English place names in the world.
Historical development of personal names in England. English place names
in the world. The presentation is made by
Gál Csilla Behind the English Names Middle name English Surnames Family names passed down intact from father to son to grandson.
Began in England as early as the eleventh century. The complete name usually consists of
a given name, a second given name called a middle name, and a family name. In the English-speaking areas, the middle name is a secondary given name. People can have more than one middle name, though it is unusual to have none. Origins of English Last Names
Surnames in England generally developed from four major sources: Patronymic & Matronymic Surnames
These are surnames derived from baptismal or Christian names to indicate family relationship or descent.
-s, -son, -ing, -kin Occupational Surnames:
Many English surnames developed from a person's job or trade.
Three common English surnames -- Smith, Wright and Taylor A name ending in -man or -er usually implies such a trade name, as in Chapman (shopkeeper), Barker (tanner) and Fiddle. Descriptive Surnames:
Based on a unique quality or physical feature of the
individual, these surnames often developed from
nicknames or pet names. These are names derived from the location of the homestead
from which the first bearer and his family lived, and are
generally the most common origin of English surnames. Geographical or Local Surnames: Cheshire, Kent, Devon, Hertford, Carlisle, Oxford Sykes (marshy stream), Bush and Attwood (near a wood).
At- , By- , TOP 10 COMMON ENGLISH
Sources •Vocabulary words, such as Hope, Sky and Summer. S
•Variants of more traditional names, such as Alicia from Alice, Krystle from Crystal.
•Independent short forms and diminutives of other names, such as Bill from William, Jessie from Jessica.
•Made-up names, such as Lavone and Jolene. History of names In the 5th century the Anglo-Saxons used Old English Germanic names. In the late 8th century Vikings bring Old Norse names and Scandinavian names. The Norman Conquest of England took place in 1066.-Germanic names In the 13th century the Church encouraged parents to give the names of saints to their children. These names were often of Ancient Greek, Latin or Hebrew origin. The fundamentalist Puritans of the 17th century used even more obscure biblical names from the Old Testament and also virtue names, such as Charity and Patience. More history During the 18th and 19th centuries many older names were revived. Also, names from literature and mythology became more common. In the later 19th century, during the Victorian Age, some vocabulary words began to be used, such as those of flowers and gemstones. In modern times: invented names, variants, and borrowings from other languages. A patronym is a name derived from the name of the
father or another paternal ancestor. Some surnames are
patronymic in origin, like Peterson = "Peter's son".
A matronym (also matronymic, metronym or metronymic)
is a name derived from the name of the mother or another maternal ancestor. A filiation attached to a name describes the bearer's
paternal descent. The complete Roman name sometimes
had a filiation. Patronym, matronym, filiation The praenomen was the ancient Roman given name. With a nomen and a cognomen it formed a complete Roman name. The nomen was the Roman gens (that is clan) name. In the typical Roman name it was preceded by the praenomen and followed by the cognomen. Praenomen
Appius : used by gens Claudia
Camillus: used by gentes Furia and Arruntia
Decius: used by gens Minatia
Decimus : "tenth"
Originally cognomina were nicknames, but by the
time of the Roman Empire they were inherited from
father to son. Cognomia Aelius:
emperor Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (Hadrian)
general Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus
general Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony)
Nomen Praenomen Cognomen Example
Brutus: senator Marcus Junius Brutus
Caesar: dictator Gaius Julius Caesar
Cicero: orator Marcus Tulius Cicero Many people include their middle name as an initial in their usual name, for example George W. Bush. In America, surnames especially the mother's maiden name have often been employed as
middle names. A nickname is a substitute for a
person's real name.
Some nicknames are derived from a
person's given name, for example Bob
or Rob from Robert.
Others can be derived from physical
features, such as Stretch, Fats, Red or Spike. Nickname A pseudonym is a name that a person or group assumes
for a particular purpose, which differs from his or her
original or true name (orthonym). Pseudonym stage names, screen names, pen names, nicknames, aliases, gamer identifications Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canale)
Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi)
Coldmirror (Kathrin Fricke)
Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi)
English place names come from a variety of old English and Anglo-Saxon words. English place names Place Names Ending in Don....Wimbledon, Croydon, Abingdon, London-shortening of Londinium, a name from Roman Times Many place names are connected to waterways, with towns and cities ending in Mouth an example of this:Bournemouth, Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Watford and Oxford are examples of English place names
ending in Ford. This comes from being named after a Ford. The name Oxford comes from Ford of the Oxen as it was a place often used as a crossing point by Oxen. Bury endings is one of the more simple; it used to mean Borough.
Salisbury, Aylesbury, The word Stoke comes from the Old English word for Stok, which meant place.
Basingstoke, Stoke English place names Thank you