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2nd Quarter

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Aaron Cirasuolo

on 15 November 2018

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Transcript of 2nd Quarter

Imperialism - When a stronger country takes over a weaker country for its Natural resources.
The stronger country dominates the weaker country politically economically and/or socially.
Old imperialism- 1500's to 1800's -

European nations established colonies throughout the world.
The Americans, India, Southeast Asia, and the coast lines of China and Africa.

The European nations had limited power in this colonies.
New Imperialism 1870-1914

Nationalism- produced strong central governed countries.

The Industrial Revolution- made european countries economies stronger.
They now had a need for raw materials as well as a market to sell finished products.

This takes place mostly in Africa and Asia and European powers dominate the regions and directly control them.
Causes of Imperialism

1. Need Natural resources for the Industrial Revolution.

2. Need for new markets.

3. Place for growing population to settle.

4. Place to invest money
Political Causes:

1. Bases for trade and Naval ships.

2. Power and security of global empire.

3. Spirit of nationalism. The more colonies you had the stronger you were perceived.

Social Darwinism
Social Causes:

1. Wish to spread Christianity

2. Wanted to spread Western European Culture.

White Man's Burden
9th Grade review:

European Countries began to explore the world for economic gain.

During the late 1400s European countries wanted to find a water route to India.

Reason:To make as much money off the spice trade as possible.

Started to explore coast of Africa to see if there was a way around it, to India.
(Price Henry the Navigator)

* Bartholomew Dias
* Vasco Da Gama
French East India Company vs. British East India Company

Battle of Plassey: British Win French leave India.
The British East India Company
By the mid 1800's the BEIC controlled the trading rights of India and in essence became their government.
The BEIC employed Indians' as soldiers.

They were called sepoys
The BEIC disregard India culture and religion.
The Sepoy Rebellion
The BEIC tried to force the sepoys to use new rifles. They were of better quality but to use them the sepoys were forced to bite into bullet cartridge.
The cartridges were packed with cow and pig lard(fat).

This caused an issue because this caused issues with the sepoys religion .
Hindu's felt the cow was sacred

Muslims felt pigs were unclean/unholy and could not be eaten.
The sepoys refused to use the guns and the BEIC started to imprison them.

This started an uprising

The sepoys began to slaughter the BEIC.
However India had become too important
to Britain and its economy to lose.

Industrial Revolution: Raw Materials
So Queen Victoria sent in the British Army to put down the rebellion.
1858 the British Parliament dismantled the BEIC and made India a Colony of Britain.
Good Effects
British Rule of India
New roads and railroads link parts of India.
Telegraph and postal systems unite people
Irrigation system improve farming
British open Schools
Customs that threaten human rights are ended. (Sati- Thugi)
Negative Effects of British rule
British taking India's resources
British-made goods replace local goods
Farmers forced to grow cash crops- can't grow food- Indians go hungry
Top jobs go to the British
Indians are treated as inferiors
Britain tries to replace Indian culture with western ways.
Imperialism in Africa
1870's King Leopold of Belgium sent a mission to the interior of Africa to establish trade agreements with the leaders of the Congo.
It was supposed to guard against the slave trade and protect christian missionaries in the region.
However Belgium was just exploiting the Congolese people.
The Scramble for Africa
The Belgian presence in the Congo set off a scramble among other European powers to establish their presence on the continent.
The Berlin Conference
In 1885 - European leaders meet in the city of Berlin, Germany.
To discuss setting up colonies in Africa and avoiding conflict
As Africa is carved up the European nations don't take into consideration the tribal boundaries on Africa.
Tribalism vs. Nationalism
In 1850 most of Africa was free by the early 1900's most of the continent was under European control.
By 1900, seven European nations controlled parts of Africa.
1. Belgium
2. England
3. France
4. Germany
5. Italy
6. Portugal
7. Spain
Europe divides the Continent
History of Southern Africa
1488 Dais- Finds southern tip of Africa ( Cape of Good Hope)
Mid 1600's
Dutch farmers
called Boers settled in Southern Africa.
(Dutch East India Company)
Cape Town- Supply Station
The Boers treated the Native Africans horribly. (Slavery)
British Enter South Africa
Imperialism-leads Britain to South Africa. They take it over.
They told the Dutch they had to treat the native Africans with more dignity.
So the Dutch Left the Cape Colony and moved north.
The Great Trek
They moved north and try to establish a new colony. This becomes known as the Great Trek.
On the Great Trek they came in contact with the Zulu Nation.
Zulu Nation
In the early 1800's a African leader named Shaka Zulu organized Zulu Warriors.

They were fighting against the slave traders and ivory hunters.
Through conquest of other african tribes the Zulu Nation increased their land
They established two new colonies : Orange Free-State and Transvaal.
The Boer War
Cecil Rhodes

He was an Englishman
He was able to gain control of diamond and gold production in South Africa.
He was the Prime Minister of the Cape Colony.
He had hoped to extend British control into Central Africa.
He also wanted to get rid of Paul Kruger.
The Two Main Leaders
Paul Kruger
He was the president of the Transvaal Republic.

He wanted a white South Africa under Boer rule, where Africans had no power.
The British government turned to military force.

The Boers carried on Guerrilla warfare

They were outnumbered, but they did win some battles.
The War !
Finally the British outnumbered the Boers and defeated them in 1902.

Britain gained control of Orange Free State and Transvaal.
Imperialism in China
Since 1644 rulers of the Qing Dynasty had refused to adopt western ways.
Europeans wanted 3 things from China

1. Silk
2. Tea
3. Porcelain
(Silk Road)
The Chinese felt they were better than the rest of the world. (Ethnocentric)

Only wanted gold for their goods

Rejected Cultural diffusion- Falls behind- European powers
Foreigners had to pay tribute to Chinese.

* Admitting they were inferior
Tribute System
The Tribute system caused a great deal of problems.

Kowtow- the foreigners would kneel before the emperor and set his head on the floor.
By 1795 foreigners refused to kowtow
The Justice System also hurt relationships with foreigners.

Chinese law said that you were guilty until proven innocent.
Justice System
The Opium Wars
The Chinese rarely used opium before the Europeans came.
More & more people wanted the drug and the British were willing to supply it.
The emperors threatened death for anyone who used or smuggled opium.
In 1839 the Chinese Government ordered that all opium be surrendered. The British sent troops in and easily defeated the Chinese.
The British began to trade opium instead of gold for Chinese products.

The British imperialist liked the idea.
They grew the opium in India for almost nothing
The Indians harvested it and shipped in to China
The Treaty of Nanjing
This was the unequal treaty that ended the Opium War.
The Chinese had to pay for all the opium they destroyed.
They gave Hong Kong to the British.
Established exterritorialy
Opium is legalized
Taiping rebellion
The Taiping Rebellion was a widespread civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who, having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty.
About 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history.
Hong established the
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
with its capital at Nanjing. The Kingdom's army controlled large parts of southern China, at its height containing about 30 million people
The rebels attempted social reforms:
believing in shared "property in common"
the replacement of Confucianism, Buddhism and Chinese folk religion with a form of Christianity.
equality for women.
The Qing government crushed the rebellion with the eventual aid of French and British forces.
In the 20th century,
Sun Yat-sen,
founder of the Chinese Nationalist Party, looked on the rebellion as an inspiration, and Chinese paramount leader
Mao Zedong
glorified the Taiping rebels as early heroic revolutionaries against a corrupt feudal system.
Sino-Japanese War
This was a war between China & Japan.

They were fighting over control of Korea.
Japan won easily and took Korea from China.
The weakness of the Chinese encouraged foreigners to try & take advantage of them. Borza was here
The Empress Dowager
Gained control of the throne & ran the government for 37 years.
She was not interested in reform or the welfare of China
She was more interested in personal wealth.
Guangxu believed that by learning from constitutional monarchies like Japan and Germany, China could become a more power nation
China was not ready for the reform and after 3 months he was removed form power
and the Empress retook the throne.
Spheres of Influence
By the 1890’s European powers as well as Japan claimed large sections of China as Spheres of Influence
This is where European countries divided up areas of land into exclusive trading areas/rights.
The U.S. was late to the imperialist scramble.
They did not claim a sphere of Influence.
Instead they established an Open Door Policy
Cmd. Matthew Perry

This policy opened trade to all foreign countries.
By the Late 1890's anti-foreign feelings in China had led to the
formation of secret societies
The most famous secret society was the Righteous & Harmonious Fists

Westerners named them the

They were Anti-foreigner and Anti-Christian
They wanted all foreigners out of China
Boxer Uprising
In 1900’s the Boxers carried out attacks against foreigners and Christians in the Chinese capital of Beijing.
They killed several hundred People.
In response, the western powers & Japan sent a multinational force that ended the uprising.
The Boxers Lost
The Chinese were forced to pay the damages from the uprising.
The empress who originally supported the Boxers was forced to punish them.
Results of Boxer Rebellion
China decides to westernize.
Women can go to school
Confucian thought is replaced w/ Math & science.
Nationalism spread
Western Culture begins to dominate world.
Transportation, education and medical systems were improved.
Resistance to imperial rule grew into nationalist movements
Impact of Imperialism


Large numbers of Asians and Africans came under foreign rule.

Local economies became dependent on industrialized powers.

Individuals resisted European domination.

Famines occurred in lands, where farmers grew export crops for imperialist nations in place of food for local use.
Impact on Europe

West discovered new foods and products

Introduced to new cultures

Conflict arises between imperial powers

Industrialized nations control new global economy
Commodore Matthew Perry opened the doors of Japan in 1853.
Japan did not want to open its doors but had no choice because the U.S. threatened to use force if they did not.
The Opening of Japan
The U.S. gained many rights.
Extraterritorial: right of foreigners to be protected by laws of their own nation.
The Japanese did not like the foreigners.
So unhappy Samurai unseated the Shogun in 1868.
They returned the power to the Emperor.
They hoped this would help remove the foreigners from Japan.
The new Emperor and his advisors wanted to modernize Japan.
They wanted a rich country and a strong Military.
This was the turning point in Japanese History.
Meiji Restoration
The Meji Restoration
- Westernized and Modernized
They adopted western:
Social Status
(no more class distinction)
The Meiji Restoration modernized Japan with amazing speed.
They learned from the west and began to beat them at their own game.
Amazing Success
Japan needed to go through an industrial revolution.
However it was and Island and lacked the natural resources.
So spurred by nationalism and an ambition to keep up with the west they built an empire.
Japanese Imperialism
They turned toward East Asia.
Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War: (1904-05) over Manchuria
Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Positive Effects of Imperialism
The World Changes
Science and Technology
(Industrial Revolution)
The mid 1800's -1914
Advances in Medicine
The Germ Theory and Disease
Louis Pasteur-

He linked germs and disease

Showed killing certain germs stop the spread of certain diseases
Joseph Lister-

linked infection and disease
Antiseptics- reduces deaths in hospitals
Alexander Fleming-

Populations begin to grow throughout industrialized world.
Improved standard of living
Better Wages and Working Conditions
Labor Unions

Labor Laws
Better Housing
Improved Sanitation
Underground sewage system
Stopped the spread of disease

Clean drinking water.
New inventions
Henry Bessemer

Great Britain
Smelting- Process of making steel
Alexander Graham Bell

United States
Thomas Edison

United States
Electric light bulb
Gottlieb Daimler

Henry Ford

United States
Mass-production / Assembly line
The Wright Brothers

United States
New Scientific Theories
Marie Curie (France)


Energy production
Military technology
Albert Einstein (German)

Theory of Relativity
Sigmund Freud

Study of the Human Mind
World War I
Pride in ones country
Germany and France
Germany was proud of its military and industrial strength
France wanted to regain its position as a leading European power.
France lost the Franco-Prussian War in 1871
France had to pay Germany Money
Lost land (Alsace and Lorraine)
They wanted revenge
Austria-Hungary empire opposed the idea of a Slavic state.

The Slavic people wanted to create a homeland in the Balkan region.
They looked to Russia for help.
Russia was embarrassed and refused to back down from external forces.
Russo-Japanese War 1904
Glorification of military power
Arms Race
Countries became afraid of one another. They were afraid countries would use military force to solve problems.
Each countries wanted to have the largest and most technically advanced.

Great Britain vs. Germany
Countries could go to war in a flash.
Great Britain, France, Germany and several other countries competed for colonies and economic power.

France and Germany competed for colonies in Africa.
Britain felt threatened by Germany's fast industrialization .
An enemy of my enemy is my friend.
France and Britain began to form a close relationship.
Alliance System
Triple Entente
Great Britain
Triple Alliance
Austria- Hungary
This alliance system turned a small problem into a World War
Decline of Ottoman Empire
Alliance System
Archduke Francis Ferinand
The Balkan Region turns into a powder keg -
The Ottoman Empires control over the Balkans was weakening

1. Germany began to challenge England as the world’s greatest naval power.
a. This led to hostilities between these two
1832- Independence of Greece

1862- Independence of Romania

1878- Independence of Serbia

1878- Independence of Bulgaria

1878- Bosnia - Herzegovina is annexed by Austrian-Hungry empire.

1912- Independence of Albania
After Serbian independence they tried to create a united Slavic state with Russian help.
Serbia wanted to take control of to provinces, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
By taking control of them, they would receive a water port to the Adriatic Sea.
This was very important to landlocked Serbia
The Bosnians' wanted to join the Serbia.

A greater Serbia
Archduke Francis Ferdinand the future Austrian King was very progressive. He wanted to create equality for the Bosnian people.
Because the Archduke wanted this, the Bosnian people didn't want to break away.
This made Serbia angry. As a result a terrorist/nationalist group called the Black Hand assassinated the Archduke.

They hoped the idea of equality would die with him. Resulting in Bosnia wanting to join Serbia again.
Once the Archduke was assassinated, Austria wanted revenge.

They asked Germany for it backing, which Germany agreed too.
Than they made harsh demands of Serbia.

Before Serbia refused the demands the asked Russia for its backing, which Russia agreed to.
Russia should have said the wouldn't back Serbia because they were in no position to fight a war, But they didn't because they had to much nationalism.
When Serbia refuses Austria demands, Austria declares war on Serbia.
Russia keeping its word mobilized troops to attack Austria.

Germany keeping it word to Austria declares war on Russia.
The alliance system brings France, Britain, and Italy into the war.

This creates a World War.
The Triple Entente became the Allies
The Triple Alliance became the Central Powers

Italy switched sides in 1915 and became part of the Allies.
The world would now feel the grip of war
The Great War Begins
This was the
first mechanized
New weapons such as:
a. the machine gun
b. grenades
c. poison gas
d. flame throwers
e. tanks
The two main areas of conflict were:
Eastern Europe- mobile war

The Western Front in France and Belgium
Trench Warfare
600 miles long- from English Channel to Switzerland
The US declared war on Germany in April 1917 after the sinking of the Lusitania.

This occurred because of Germany’s policy of unrestricted submarine warfare.

They joined on the side of the Allies to “protect democracy”.

US President Woodrow Wilson felt that freedom of the seas and the rights of neutrals were important things to fight
United States enters the War
Turning Points
By 1917, Russian troops began deserting in large numbers.

This helped lead to the Russian Revolution
The new Communist government pulled Russia out.
Russian Withdrawal
The United States entering the war helps the Allies win.
The Allies finally got Germany to agree to end the fighting (armistice) on the 11th hour, of the 11th day, of the 11th month, 1918 (November 11, 1918 - 11:00am)
Results of the War.

Human Casualties:

8.5 million people died

17 million wounded

Famine threatened many regions

Disease spread in many places
Economic Losses
Factories, farms, and homes had been destroyed
Nations had huge war debts to repay
The Allies, bitter at the destruction, insisted that the Central Powers make
, payments for war damage they had caused.
Revolution in Russia
Czarist Rule- wanted to industrialize Russia and build it's economic strengths.
Although they wanted westernized economy, they wanted to block the enlightenment ideas of the French Revolution from entering Russia.
Liberals called for a constitutional monarchy.
However the Russian czars used tactics, such as secret police to suppress reform.
Urban workers - worked long hours in bad conditions- the idea of socialism started to spread.
Russification- tried to make everyone Russian. Forced them to speak Russian, practice Russian culture and even think Russian. (Nationalism)
Revolution 1905
The Russo-Japanese War of 1904 caused a crisis in Russia.
Poverty and bad working conditions
corrupt government
persecution of minority groups
"Bloody Sunday" killings

Bloody Sunday
After the loss to Japan ( Russo Japanese War). People in Russia peaceful marched on the Czars Palace demanding reform.
The Czar has his troops open fire into the crowd. Thousands are killed and a revolt erupted through Russia.

Pogroms continued

The "October Manifesto"- Czar Nicholas

Freedom of speech, press, assembly and union.

Duma (Legislature) is created. Checks and balances.
No law could be passed without the approval of the Duma.

1914 the power of the Duma had disappeared.

During WWI the rule of the Czar ended

Russia was not ready for a modern war.
Soldiers had inadequate weapons and supplies (Millions were dying)
There was a food, fuel and housing shortage through Russia caused another peaceful protest.

The Czar again told his troops fire into the crowd. This time they refused and joined the crowd.

Czar Nicholas II stepped down.

This becomes known as the March revolution (Peaceful).

A Provisional Government takes over, however they are very weak and do not withdrawal from WWI.
The Bolshevik Revolution
The Bolsheviks were lead by Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky.

They promised the people three things:
Peace, Land and Bread

November 1917- Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional government.

Lenin takes over and the Bolsheviks' becomes known as communists.

The Lenin' s Government

Signs treaty with Germany in 1918. They give Germany large chunk of Russia and withdrew from WWI.

Civil War begins:
Reds(Communists) vs. Whites (Counter-revolutionaries: People loyal to the Czar)
Trotsky builds and trains Red Army and wins war. (1921)

New Economic Policy (NEP): Communist economic system with a little Capitalism.
1922: The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic is created.
1924- Lenin Dies
Stalin vs. Trotsky
After Lenin’s death there was a struggle for control of the Communist party
Head of the Red Army

Was the right hand man of Lenin.

Felt the whole world needed to become communist, not just Russia.


felt communism could become strong within the borders of Russia then spread throughout the world.

Stalin won and became the Dictator or Leader of Russia.

Economic Plan:
5 year plan

It’s goal was to increase heavy industry output.
Create high levels of agricultural production to free farmers to work in factories.

Export extra agricultural goods to pay for imports of needed machinery

Government seized privately owned farms, machinery, production and livestock.
Created larger farms so they could be more easily mechanized and would be easier for the government to control.

Stalin’s Opposition
The Ukraine’s soil was very fertile and became Russia’s “breadbasket”.
So opponents of Stalin’s collectivization plan, destroyed crops, equipment and livestock.

It took 20 years to restore livestock levels.
Drought in the Ukraine lead to Famine.
Stalin refused to allow imports into the Ukraine
Over 5 million people starved to death because of it.

Stalin’s Rule
Totalitarian Rule :

Controlled all aspects of a citizens life.
Created a Strong Central Government
Ethnic groups lost power
Election: only one person running

Russification & The Reign of Terror
Purged government of his enemies.
1937- 8 top-ranking army generals were convicted of conspiracy.

50% of Army officers were arrested/ Many were shot

Stalin returned to the policies of the czar Russification.

Between the Wars
The Treaty of Versailles
"The Big Four”
Great Britain
The US

Woodrow Wilson did not want to punish Germany or take any territory.
The 14 Points
This was Wilson’s plan for peace

Arms reduction
Freedom of the seas.
The League of Nations
This would help settle disputes and prevent wars in the future
This was a pre-cursor to the UN
Terms of the Treaty
Germany lost land which was used to form Poland

German colonies were taken over by the League of Nations

Germany’s army and navy were dismantled
Germany was forced to accept full responsibility for the war by paying reparations.

This caused damage to their national pride and made them hate the Allies
The map of Europe was completely redrawn
The League of Nations
The League of Nations was created.
It was very weak because United States did not join.

* Manchurian Incident
Empires Collapse
Austria – Hungary breaks-up.

Ottoman Empire Breaks-Up
Most Arabs lands come under French and British control
World Wide Depression
Causes for depression:
Less demand for raw materials.
Overproduction of Goods
Stock Market crashes
The Rise of Fascism
Characteristics of Fascism:

Strong Military
Censorship & government controlled news
Extreme nationalism
State controlled eco.
Strict discipline
Ruled by a dictator
Blind loyalty to leader
Use of violence and terror
Benito Mussolini: Started Fascism

He promised to solve the problems of Italy.
Rekindles Nation
Hitler in Germany
After WWI Germany was forced into becoming a democracy:
The Weimar Republic
Weak Form of Government.
Inflation created major Eco. Problems
Unhappy because of the loss of tradition
Great Depression
Wanted to expand empire
Japanese Militarism
1931: Manchurian incident
Withdrawal from league of Nation
Anti- Western feelings
Ended Democratic freedom
Tried to control China
National Movements
Turkish Nationalism
Mustafa Kemal: was a Turkish war hero in Turkey.

He lead the nationalist movement after WWI.
Overthrew the Sultan
Defeated western occupation forces
Declared Turkey a republic
Took the name
Kemal Ataturk:
Meaning father of the Turks.
Ataturk makes changes to Turkey
He modernized and westernized the country.

Replaced Islamic law with a new law code, based of European Law.

Replace Islamic calendar with Christian calendar
People were required to wear western clothes
State Schools were set-up - Western thought
Women gained rights: to vote, to wear what the chose.
Turkey also industrialized: built roads, railroads, and factories.
Iranian Nationalism
In Iran, the British and the Russians had carved out spheres of influences.
In 1925 an army, Reza Khan, overthrew the ruler of Iran (The Shah).
After taking control of the government Reza Khan:

Made himself Shah
Made Iran independent
Modernized and Westernized Iran
Adopted western dress codes and western alphabet.
Made secular school and replace Islamic law with secular.
Women had more rights.
Wealthy urban Iranians supported him, Muslim religious leaders did not.

Genocide in the Ukraine
This was the drive for the creation of the state of Israel

Founded by Theodore Herzel

Zionist Movement
The Jews became the victims of Anti-Semitism
The discrimination of the Jews.

A. World War I caused a great deal of nationalism in the Arab world.
1. Some Arabs helped the British fight the Ottomans.

They wanted help from them after the war in setting up their own kingdoms.

Arab Nationalism
2. When they realized they could not set up their own kingdom they felt betrayed.

3. Britain & France were looking to control the oil production of the region.
Arab nationalist wanted to end foreign control of the Middle East. From this nationalism a movement grew called Pan-Arabism.

It called from Arab unity based on a shared heritage.
In reaction to centuries of hatred, leading to the pogroms. Jew wanted to create a homeland.
India Nationalism
During WWI nearly one million Indians fought on the side of the Allied Powers with the promise that they would receive self rule (Independence) after an Allied victory.
However after the war was over they failed to keep their promise.
Mohandas Gandhi the father of Indians independence movement, felt betrayed and continued to demand self-rule.
He used civil disobedience and passive resistance
civil disobedience: finding an unjust law and choosing not to follow it.

The Amritsar Massacre 1919

A law was created, to stop Indians gather together in public. (no freedom of assembly)

Indians gathered peaceful in the city of Amritsar.
Without warning British soldiers opened fire on the crowd.
Over 400 Indians were killed and wounding more than 1,200.
This convinced Gandhi and most Indians that the British must leave India.

They invaded Manchuria (China)
The Chinese asked the League of Nations to stop Japan.
The League asked Japan to return Manchuria to China .
Japan said “NO” and quit the League
The League was now seen as powerless and Italy and Germany took advantage of it.
Japan’s Expansion
Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935

Ethiopia asked the League of Nations for help.

Again the League couldn't do anything!
Italy’s Conquest of Ethiopia
Germany started building up it’s Army
This broke the Treaty of Versailles.

Hitler invaded the Rhineland
1936- A buffer zone between Germany & France.
Germany on the Offensive
France and Britain did nothing to Hitler for invading the Rhineland and this only encouraged him more.

1936 – Mussolini and Hitler sign the Rome-Berlin Axis. Later Japan joined the alliance.
France & Britain
1938-Hitler seizes Austria

Hitler claimed
“One blood one Reich”
Austria must be returned to its great mother country.

Austria asks Britain & France for help.
Hitler Keeps Going
France and Great Britain did nothing!

They told Germany that’s okay just don’t takeover anything else.
Hitler demanded the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia.

1938- Prime Minister of England Neville Chamberlain gave in to Hitler's demands at the Munich Conference.
He was using the policy of appeasement.
The Sudetenland
Appeasement – granting concessions to maintain peace.

However Hitler double crossed Chamberlain and took over all of Czechoslovakia.’

France & Britain finally had enough and told Hitler if he advanced anymore they would declare war.
Sept. 1, 1939
World War II Begins
Hitler invades Poland
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Nonaggression Pact
The Axis
1. Germany
2. Italy
3. Japan
The Allies
1. Britain
2. France
3. The United States
4. The Soviet Union
5. 45 other countries
I. The Axis vs. The Allies
Germany used a method of fighting called a “Blitzkrieg” or lightening warfare.
The attack included planes, tanks, artillery and infantry attacks a target at the same time.
They took:
- Denmark
- Norway
- the Netherlands
- Belgium
- France
- the Balkans
- parts of N. Africa
II. The Axis Advances
Germany bombed British cities continuously hoping that they would just role over.
The Battle of Britain
June 1942-43 – Germany invaded Russia.
4. December 7, 1941 – Japan bombed Pearl Harbor and dragged the US into the war.
The Allies began to turn the tide in 1942

They stopped the Axis in Africa
Patton (US) vs Rommel (Germany)

Mussolini was forced from power in Italy and was executed.
The Tide is Turned
The Allies pushed the Germans out of France and followed them to Germany.

At the same time, Russia was pushing into Germany from the east.
D-Day – June 6, 1944

May 7, 1945 – Germany surrendered. (V-E Day)
Hitler killed himself instead of facing defeat.
A. The war finally ended on August 14, 1945 (V-J Day) when Japan surrendered to the US.

We had to drop 2 atomic bombs to end it:
Hiroshima – August 6
Nagasaki – August 9
The Effects of the War
The Battle of Stalingrad
Scorched Earth Policy
60 million people died

Millions were left homeless as a result of all the bombings.
WWII was the most destructive war ever:
World power shifted from Europe to
the Soviet Union and the United States
European countries were forced to give up many of their colonies because they couldn’t afford to keep them.
They also pledged to work on solving disease, hunger and illiteracy in the world.
The United Nations was formed to avoid another
war of that nature.
The Big Three - Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin met for the first time in Tehran, Iran
They discussed:
The invasion of France
How they would deal with Germany and Poland after the war was over.
Wartime Conferences
They then met in Yalta, Russia in 1945
Churchill and Roosevelt wanted to get Russian support in a fight against Japan.
They also discussed the future of Eastern Europe.
There would be free elections

Eastern Poland would become part of the Soviet Union.

Poland would receive part of East Germany

Germany would be divided into occupation zones by to victorious powers

They also agreed to take part in the United Nations.
The third meeting was at Potsdam, Germany in 1945.
1. Conflicts between the Soviets and the others began to emerge
As the Ottoman entered the 20th century their decline was well known throughout Europe.

They were referred to as the "sick man of Europe"

They felt most threatened by the expanding Russian empire.
The Muslim Turks who were controlling the Ottoman Empire.

They distrusted the Christian Armenians, believing they sided with Russia.

The Turks reaction was to commit a Genocide against the Armenians.

Over 1 million Armenians were slaughtered
The Raping of Nanking
See: Reading
1940 - July to December- 25000 British Civilians killed

Over 2 million combined troops were killed.
91,000 German troops were captured.
German's pushed back - 1st time.
1933- Hitler became Chancellor and later Reich's führer, the Nazi party quickly changed Germany's political, social, and economic structure.
(Anti-Semitism )
1937- Japan invades China
Confining Jews to ghettos was another critical step in Hitler's Final Solution.
Confining Jews to ghettos was another critical step in Hitler's Final Solution
Rescue and Liberation (1944-1945). Some survived through the heroics of neighbors; others were liberated by the Allies.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Winston Churchill
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Winston Churchill

Lady Nancy Astor: Winston, if you were my husband, I'd poison your tea.
Churchill: Nancy, if I were your husband, I'd drink it.”
Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.
Winston Churchill

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