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The Peruvian Revolution

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Alexis Gelston

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of The Peruvian Revolution

http://lifethroughmy4eyes.wordpress.com/2011/11/05/caral-a-city-as-old-as-mesopotamia/
The Peruvian Revolution
By:
Meredith Luchs,
Abigail Farley, &
Alexis Gelston
~ Revolutionary Break-Down ~
Causes
Results
Process
The Essential Question:

Did Peru's revolution lead to its current situation, or are there other catalysts that account for its status?
Quick Facts:

Population: 27,947,000
Capital: Lima
Area: 496,224 square miles
Languages: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara
Religion: Roman Catholic
Currency: Nuevo sol
Life Expectancy: 69
GDP per Capita: U.S. $5,000
Literacy: 91 %

1821
600 CE-1450 CE
1450 CE - 1750 CE
1900 CE - Present
1750 CE - 1900 CE
600 BCE-600 CE
?-600 BCE
Middle Horizon:
expansion emphasized
suppression of other cultures through conquering
Spanish Conquest & Rule
15th Century - Incas
Inca Captured 1532 by Spanish
1542 Viceroyalty of Peru est.
1570 reorganized by Viceroy Francisco de Tolendo
Indian Oppression
Jose Antonia de Areche (just after 1750)
Independence and Early Government
1821 Independence of Peru
1824 Battle of Ayacucho
Spain makes various attempts to recapture colonies
Dissolution of confederation
Peru bankrupt, railroads across Andes
Alternation between Democracy and Militarism

1929-Treaty Of Lima
1908-1912, 1919-1930 Pres. Augusto B. Lugo increased foreign investment and favored the working class while decreasing power of the land owning oligarchy
Numerous Brief Governments
APRA (political party) and Peruvian Communist Party vie for control of Peru after the Ally victory in WWII
Pre-ceramic:
settlement of nomads
domestication and agriculture
Initiation:
ceramics
Thanks for watching!
Lima:
Capital
Spanish stronghold before revolution
Battle of Ayacucho:
Royalists surrender
Ends Spanish rule in SA
Periodization Timeline of Peru
Early Horizon:
cultures develop
Early Intermediate:
metalwork and weaving
temples
http://www.skepdic.com/nazca.html
Oppression of Natives
Creole resentment
Unpopular Reforms
Enlightenment Philosophy
Forced Religious Conversion
Napoleon's Invasion of Spain
Causes of the Revolution
Indian Oppression
Economic Slavery
Reducciones
Exploitation for Labor
Repartos
Forced Conversion
Global Influences
Napoleon Invades Spain
Enlightenment
American Revolution
French Revolution
Opposition to Imperial Rule
Opposition of Creoles
Increased Taxes
Resistance from Natives
Unpopular Policies
Bourbon Reforms
Liberal Triennium
Inspiring Rebellions
Atahualpa Rebellion: 1742-1752
Tupac Aramu II Rebellion: 1780-1781
Pumacahu Rebellion: 1814
Spanish Control Weakens
Loose Strength 1815
Financial Crisis
Unable to Enforce
Repartiementos
Spanish Loyalty Weakening
Cycle of Rebellions
(Causes)

Money Spent By Spanish to Control Rebellions
Financial Crisis Becomes Worse
Increase Oppression and Exploitation of Indians
Stronger Resistance to Spanish & More Rebellions
Present Day Peru
Social Status
Present Day Peru
Economic Status

Present Day Peru
Economic Status

Present Day Peru
Political Status
Short Term Effects
of the Revolution

Social
Social Discrimination
Exclusion from positions of power
Developing Country
Medical Technology
Education
Economic
Stagnant trade followed by expansion
Guano boom
Economic ties with Spanish broken
Creation of
Political
Voting and Land owning rights restricted
Oligarchical system
Border Disputes with neighboring countries
Long Term Effects
of the Revolution
(Peru Today)

Social
Discrimination against indigenous population
Poverty
35% poverty level nationwide
70% poverty level in indigenous areas
Unequal Education
32% indigenous children attend school
55% non-indigenous children attend school
Economic

Political
Oligarchical system opens door for future abuses in government (Fujimori)
Political campaigns often misrepresent the actual political careers of officials
Presidents out of touch with will of the public

Division of classes
Creole elite have elevated status
Early Constitutions had voting restrictions
Corruption Prevalent in Government
Territorial Disputes
1879-1884-Peru enters the War of the Pacific
1879-Spain recognizes Peruvian Independence
1894-1920's- "Aristocratic Republic"
Social and Economic Reforms instituted to restore order
Civilian rule not established until 1895 with the election of Pierola
Communist leader elected President twice-military prevents his rule
President Bustamante y Rivero attempts to limit power of military and of oligarchy-APRA party stands in the way
Creole Elite have elevated status
Early Government Struggles to obtain legitimacy
Corruption Prevalent
Minority groups largely uneducated and neglected by the Spanish
Creole see themselves as having elevated status and thus take power
Extremely Stratified SocioEconomic Enviornment
No Common Goal
Competing Goals
Abuse of Power to Stratify Government
Initial Militial Rule by San Martin
Deeply stratified political parties compete for power
Caudillos compete for Power
Frequent abuses of human rights-Fuijimari
Embezzlement and deception for personal gain= common in Peruvian Government

(Cont'd)
arrest of trade
tension between social classes
distrust towards monarchists
internal revolts + strongholds
severing of Spanish ties
switched trade control
Tupac Amaru II
Rebellion
Expansion of trade
Reliance on foreign loans
Dependence on few exports
3rd largest export for Copper
6th largest export for gold and silver
Illegal trading becomes more frequent
2/3 land covered in forest
Logging: $20 million to US alone

Process of the Revolution
Weakening of Spanish
Catholic Church Declines
Rejection from government
Clergy deficit
Restricted on presence
Decreased income
Unstable Political Establishment
Gain and loss of independence of Chile
Motive to secure Argentina's liberation
Pockets of Royalists throughout
Napoleon's invasions
Dispersed royalist forces
Strategic immobilization
Opposition to monarchy
Loss of Political/Social Equilibrium
reversal of social classes
prevention of foreign connections
constant replacement of governing figures
Tupac Aramu II
Rebellion
Battle of Sangara
End of Rebellion
Effects of Rebellion
Battle of Ayacucho (1824)
Revolution of Peru and Today
Unstable political leaders
Dependence on specified trade
Tendency to avoid reforms

Atahualpa Rebellion
1742-1752
Pumacahu Rebellion
1814
Battles over Chile
Battle of Rancagua
Viceroy claims Chile
Battle of Chacabuco
Jose de San Martin
joins Army of Andes with Rio de la Plata
Battle of Maipu
secures Chile
Campaigns for Independence
Ships gather and capture ports
Funded mostly by Chile
Ships land at Pisco
takes Lima following day
Liberation Spreads
General Alvarez and San Martin unite
claim Huamanga (Ayacucho)
Capture the Esmeralda
hinders Spanish navy
Royalists forced out of Lima
Declaring Independence
San Martin swears oath to Peruvians
Act of Independence of Peru is signed
Royalists remain present
Jose de Sucre requests aid
Peru: a final stronghold
Peninsular War (1807-1814)
Spanish power slips
establishment of juntas
UP annexed to viceroyalty
Frequent Uprisings
Rebellion of Cuzco
wanted freedom of self-governing
suppressed by 1815
“El Perú es desde este momento libre e independiente por la voluntad general de los pueblos y por la justicia de su causa que Dios defiende. ¡VIVA LA PATRIA! ¡VIVA LA LIBERTAD! ¡VIVA LA INDEPENDENCIA!”

"Peru is free and independent from this moment by the general will of the people and the justice of its cause that God defends.VIVA LA NATION!VIVA FREEDOM!Long live independence! "

—José de San Martín. Lima, 28th of July of 1821

Decline and Instability
Royalists constant threat
Controlled all but North and coasts
Gran Colombia intervenes
San Martin exiled
Request for Bolivar
Final Movements for Independence
Battle of Junin and Ayacucho
lead by Bolivar and Jose de Sucre
end of colonialism in LA
Felipe Fortress (1826)
royalists surrender
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