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Copy of NATURAL STAIN REMOVER USING CALAMANSI (Citrusmicrocarpa), DA
Transcript of Copy of NATURAL STAIN REMOVER USING CALAMANSI (Citrusmicrocarpa), DA
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Clothing stains can be classified into permanent and temporary stains. Permanent stains are those stains which include iron rust, mildew, human perspiration stain, and also blood stains while temporary stains are those stains which include chocolate stains, protein stains, oil stains and many others. Some of these stains can be easily removed, but some are not. With the use of the stain removers, stains can be removed. But not all stain removers can remove all kinds of stains because there are stains that need to be treated with strong bleaching agents.
Bleaching agents may damage our clothing if we don’t take extra care in using this. We have to know also that not all bleaching agents are safe to use, because there are some bleaching agents that can be harmful not only on our clothing but also to our skin.
We have to take note that in choosing a bleaching agent to use we have to consider the effect of the bleaching agent to us. We can also consider using the natural stain removers as an alternative to bleaching agents.
Background of the Study
Stains are one of the major problems of people nowadays. No matter how hard we try to protect our clothes, still we cannot stop stains from developing. This is why people use synthetic stain removers to remove the stubborn stains on their clothes.
A stain is a discoloration that can be clearly distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon. These are caused by either chemical or physical interaction of two dissimilar materials
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to produce an effective stain remover made of natural sources that can remove both permanent and temporary stains.
Specifically the study will seek to:
1. To extract the juice of the fruit stain remover by pounding and squeezing.
2. To apply the fruit stain remover into the 100% cotton fabrics.
3. To observe if the iron rust stain, human perspiration stain, mildew, yellow spots of the fabric, grease stains could be remove by the fruit stain remover.
Significance of the Study
The research study will conducted to find an effective fruit stain remover made from the fruit juices of calamansi, kamias, dalandan, and also cane vinegar. It is important because the study was promoting the use of natural stain removers as an alternative to the synthetic stain removers. It also provides additional information about the potential of the calamansi, kamias, dalandan, and cane vinegar as fruit stain remover. The study was beneficial to the people because they can use the natural stain remover in removing the stain in their clothes. Furthermore, people can be sure that it has no bad effects to the clothes and to the skin, unlike when using synthetic stain removers. In addition to this, people can easily prepare the stain remover because it does not require much effort to do it.
Limitation of the Study
The study will limited only on the effectiveness and the ability of the calamansi, kamias, dalandan, and cane vinegar as stain remover.
Time and Place of the Study
The study will conduct at San Jose City, Nueva Ecija.
A stain is a discoloration that can be clearly distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon. They are caused by the chemical or physical interaction of two dissimilar materials. The types of stains are There can be intentional stains (such as wood stains or paint), Indicative stains (such as food coloring or adding a substance to make bacteria visible under a microscope)
Botany and Uses
Calamansi is a smooth and slightly spiny plant, growing to a height of 3 to 5 meters. Leaflets are elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 4 to 8 centimeters long. Petioles are very narrowly or scarcely winged, about 1 centimeter long. Flowers are axillaries, solitary, rarely in pairs, white, and short-stalked. Fruit is yellow when ripe, nearly spherical, 2 to 3.5 centimeters diameter, 6- to 7-celled, and thin-skinned. The skin or peel is green to yellowish green or yellow, loosely adhering to the flesh. The flesh contains a few light orange seeds. It is widely cultivated in the Philippines
Kamias trees are evergreen and measure between 6 to 9 m high. The leaves tend to crowd towards the ends of branches, occurring in pairs of 7 to 19 leaflets which ovate, measuring between 5 to 12 cm long. The branches are very few and upright while the flowers are small with reddish-purple or crimson free petals that measure 10 to 22 mm long. Flowers are auxiliary or cauliflorous, appearing directly on the branches and trunk. They are produced all year round. When the plants are in bloom, the flowers attract a lot of small bees and insects in the bright morning light. The camias fruits are berries, yellowish-green, lobed slightly and measure up to 10 cm long. The skin is thin and smooth, enclosing a soft and juicy flesh which is sour.
Dalandan is a small, erect tree with smooth, greenish white shoots with spinescent thorns. Leaves are oblong to subelliptic, 10 centimeters long by about 4 centimeters wide. Petiole is narrowly winged. Flowers are white, bisexual, solitary or few clustered, smooth, and growing from the uppermost leaf axils. Fruit is nearly spherical, 5 to 9 centimeters in diameter, and mamillate or not, the skin is orange red and tight; partitioned inside with yellowish juice sacks. Taste is usually sweet, occasionally sour.
Cane vinegar, made from sugarcane juice, is most popular in the Philippines, in particular, the Ilocos Region of the northern Philippines (where it is called sukangiloko), although it also is produced in France and the United States. It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color, and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects to rice vinegar, though with a somewhat "fresher" taste. Because it contains no residual sugar, it is no sweeter than any other vinegar. In the Philippines, it often is labeled as sukangmaasim (Tagalog for "sour vinegar")
Preparation of Needed Materials
The study consists of the following activities:
The following procedures will be your guide for making a natural stain remover. Do not use over ripped calamsi, dalandan and kamias.
Wash the calamansi and drain, Cut the upper portion taking care not to cut the seeds. Cut seeds contribute to astringent taste, Manually squeeze or use fruit extractor into a clean bowl. The same steps in calamsi for dalandan. Cut the upper portion taking care not to cut the seeds. Cut seeds contribute to astringent taste, Manually squeeze or use fruit extractor and combined to the bowl of calamansi. For the kamias wash drain, cut the upper, lower and center portion of the kamias. The juice of kamias was extracted through pounding and squeezing.
1 kl Calamansi -Php 40.00
1 kl Dalandan - Php 40.00
½ kl Kamias -Php 20.00
100 ml Cane vinegar - Php.20.00
Extraction of Fruit Juices
Extraction of the fruit juices was done manually. The juice of kalamansi and dalandan will extracted through hand squeezing, while the juice of kamias was extracted through pounding and squeezing.
Preparation of the Stain Remover
On a clean container, I will put 5 tablespoons of extracted juice of kalamansi, kamias, and dalandan. 5 tablespoons of cane vinegar was also added to complete the ingredients of the natural stain remover.
Application and Treatment
Fabric that has different stains such as iron rust, chocolate stains, mildew, yellow spots, perspiration stains was soaked in the prepared stain remover for until the stains are removed. The results were recorded on a piece of paper.