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The Rise and Fall of the Inca Empire

The Incas
by

Brandon Wilhoite

on 4 February 2013

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Transcript of The Rise and Fall of the Inca Empire

Budapest San Francisco In the mid-1500's the Inca emperor died which lead to a civil war for right to the throne. The Incas Incas Has anyone every heard of Incas before? Who were they? The Inca Empire Cuzco: Inca's capital The Fall of the Inca Empire The Incas were a group of people established in the Andes Mountains of South America The most important city in the Inca Empire was Cuzco. photo (cc) by jfh686 @flickr Can anyone point out on a map where the Inca Empire was once located? Ancient Machu Picchu Despite cold mountain conditions, the Incas still were able to thrive into a great empire Even in mountain terrain, the Incas also created a large system of trade routes to connect their empire. The Incas used advanced farming techniques such as canals, ditches for irrigation in areas near modern-day Peru. Everything in the Inca Empire was
organized in the city of Cuzco, also
it was where the Emperor presided Inca Technology The Incas were one of the, if not the most, technologically advanced of all the ancient Native American civilizations

The Incas also used copper and some bronze for weapons and tools. Inca stonecutting was remarkably accurate

The best buildings were constructed of large fitted stones without the use of masonry Weather/Terrain Conditions The mountainous terrain of the Andes limited the land that could be used for agriculture, and water was sometimes scarce. (Even so, the Incas were resourceful.)

The Incas built stone walls to create raised, level fields. These fields formed step-like patterns along the sides of hills that were too steep to irrigate or plough in their natural state.

Terraces created more arable land and kept the topsoil from washing away in heavy rains. Inca Language The Inca spoken language was Quechua

Quechua is now known as a Cuzco or Bolivian dialect

Nowadays, only 8 million people speak this forgotten language Inca Cities Another important Inca city was the city of Machu Piccu, "a spectacular city."

Machu Piccu was founded in the year 1490 at the height of the Inca Empire Inca Religion
The Incas believed there was:

Inti: the sun god

Catequil: god of thunder and lightning

Mama Quilla: protects females and goddess of the moon.

Mama Cocha: the goddess of the sea

Urcuchillay: god of animals and beasts

Supai: god of the dead

Viracocha: the teacher of everything. The Andes What caused the fall of this once great empire? For administrative purposes the empire was divided into regions known as the "four suyus (quarters) of the world," with Cuzco at its center.

The Incas called their empire Tawantinsuyu, a Quechuan word meaning "Land of the Four Quarters".

Usually relatives of the emperor would head over these regions acting as governors. How was the empire governed? Agriculture/Economy There was more than enough resources available for everyone. Administration The Incas had a very clear social structure.

The Sapa Inca (The Great Inca), and his wives, the Coyas, had supreme control over the empire.

The High Priest and the Army Commander in Chief were next. Military

Then came the Four Apus, the regional army commanders.

Next came temple priests, architects, administrators and army generals.

Merchants and Middle Class

Next were artisans, musicians, army captains and the quipucamayoc, the Incan "accountants."

At the bottom were sorcerers, farmers, herding families and conscripts. Continued... Beginning of Inca Rule

The original Inca tribe was a minor Andean tribe whose expansion began with a successful campaign against its more powerful neighbors, the Chancas, in the 1440s. Continued... In addition, women were an essential part of Inca society.

Their principal role in society was to care for their children, cook, weave, make chicha beer and work at the fields; however, they had many other husbands.

The women cleaned to make their lives after marriage very busy. Not long after the Spanish arrived
to an already weakened Inca empire. Naively, the Sapa Inca allowed the new intruders safe passage throughout the kingdom, not knowing their intentions Spanish Rule of the Incas The Spanish killed the Sapa Inca Atahualpa and took as much gold and jewelry as they could carry

Later the Spanish came back with an army

It took the Spanish a couple of years to fully defeat all the Inca regions

After this the Spanish took over as the harsh ruler of the Incas http://www.history.com/videos/machu-picchu Continued... In Inca society, young children were expected to endure harsh discipline compared to today's standard

At the age of 14 young boys would perform ceremonies and give them weapons.

At the age of 10 girls were chosen and taken from their families and sent to a home, where they were taught the Inca religion also how to cook and weave. Warfare The Inca's mostly relied on stone and sling. They didn't use bow and arrows or swords. Their main weapon was wooden clubs tipped with stone. Some soldiers protected there back and chest with either wood or metal. Inca's would some times kill their enemies and cover it with gold and use them as cups to drink out of. They also made teeth necklaces and drums. The beginning of the Inca rule started with the conquest of the Chimu Culture in Peru. The Incas were an agriculturally based society, unlike Afro-Eurasian cultures of the time They developed drainage systems and canals to expand their crop resources. Potatoes, tomatoes, cotton, peanuts and coca were among the many crops grown by the Inca. Llama were used for meat and transportation. Incas into Slavery The conquest of the Incas caused the Incan empire to collapse, and the Spanish subsequently took almost all of the Incans who were not killed by disease, starvation, or battle as slaves on the New Encomienda plantations. The Incas went from a powerful nation to mere servants. Their land was taken, their food was eaten, their gold was stolen, they were killed or enslaved, their temples were abandoned or destroyed, and their language (quiche) was lost for a while. The spanish "colonization" was not good for their survival.
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