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OECD Today - September 2018

An overview of the OECD 06.11.15
by

PAC DO Account

on 11 September 2018

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Transcript of OECD Today - September 2018

"The political systems we have need to be transformed and you can see how easy it is to do it –
by democratizing the economy
."
PISA 2000
42 countries
A Global Governmental Organisation
Sharing knowledge to raise living standards
Better policies for better lives
Education
Income equality
Clean energy
Equitable tax system
Affordable water
Social protection
A Global
Policy
Network
Advice and global standards

2001
2009
2008
1998 - 2000
1998
OECD identifies best practices for exchanging bank information
Information about bank accounts, owners and beneficiaries must be:

Available:
linked to accounts

Accessible:
authorities can obtain it

Exchanged:
with tax officials
on request
G20 calls on Global Forum
OECD countries mandate work
to combat "harmful tax practices"
Over 50$B yearly lost to havens

Trust, fairness of tax systems undermined

Trade and investment patterns distorted
Secretariat conducts analysis
Collects information on 41 tax jurisdictions

Analysis leads to official definition
for "tax havens"

Produces an official list of tax havens
Oversight and strategic direction
Groups of international experts
Chaired by the Secretary-General,
Angel Gurría

Representatives of member countries
and the European Commission
Measures, analyses, compares
Measures global performance

Analyses data

Compares policies

Formulates recommendations

More than 250 committees

40,000+ experts from around the world
Example: Education
P
rogramme for
I
nternational
S
tudent
A
ssessment
Compare
International
The drivers
of "why"
Analyze
National
Individual
Test skills
A Global
Reference
Widening
the circle
to more
countries
Measure
Gather
insights
Find ways
to improve
Individual
lives
improve
Better
education
National
policies
Take advice
into account
What and how well do children learn?
PISA 2015
72 countries
Fairer taxes: from tax havens to profit shifting
From voluntary to automatic exchange
G20:
information exchange should be automatic
PISA 2000
Germany
below
average
22 out of 42

PISA 2012
Germany
above
average
16 out of 63

2013+
And tax avoidance,
including multinationals?
Base Erosion and Profit Shifting
(BEPS)

Close loopholes

Ensure everyone
pays a fair amount of tax
including multinationals
To improve
national
policies
Create
international
standards
The Peer review method
Speed up work on peer reviews

Expand the number of countries

Put all countries on equal footing,
OECD or non-OECD

Over 120 jurisdictions
Tax Havens
2013
One country's policies are examined
by experts from other countries
Experts look for
ways to improve,
lessons to take away
What makes it work?
Peer pressure
Each country goes through the same examinations
Comparing is part of human nature
Continuous monitoring cycle
sharing information

and ideas that work
mutual advice
through
co-operation
OECD countries are striving
for a
stronger
,
cleaner
,
fairer
world
Covering all areas of public policy
Exchange of information
for tax purposes
Development assistance
Environmental performance
Economic surveys
From voluntary to automatic exchange
2014+
OECD produces
new standard for automatic exchange of information
between tax authorities worldwide
OECD's global reach
Partnerships with international organisations
Sharing insights
Avoiding duplication
Raise living standards
Engaging citizens
In a nutshell
"We

were not as good as we thought...really inspired change in Germany.

We have been able to see
a steady improvement in our performance in the PISA studies
.

They have become a
truly important tool for us
."
Angela Merkel
19 February 2014
Who does what?
Council
Secretariat
Committees
15 year olds
How
countries
learn
Sets priorities

Has final decision power

Takes decisions by consensus
1998 - 2000
Exchange information and ideas

Monitor progress in specific policy areas

Request, review and contribute to Secretariat work

2 500 employees, mostly based in Paris

Some examples
International
group therapy?
Creates Global Forum
on Tax Transparency and Exchange
of Information

Over 70 countries and jurisdictions

Best practices become standards =
soft law
OECD goes global
The crisis hits
Speakers' sector (%)
including 8% corporate partner voices

Better Policies
Better Lives
Reality check:
2008 financial crisis
Recalibrating our approaches
Back to our roots: 1961
Founding Convention:
"... to promote the highest sustainable growth of their economies and
improve the economic and social well-being of their peoples
..."
- Greater public impact
- Simple description of purpose
- A common goal
- The "how"
- Focus on values
Our shift in focus
GDP-centred
People
Life-centred
Global
Governments
"Rich"
Paul Mason, Author, Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future
Finding #2: There is a need for a
clearer distinction
between the
means and the ends
.
Connecting the dots
Finding #1: There is a
growing disaffection
with traditional politics and political processes.
"The challenge for
productivity
: how to regain private companies’ vocation
of
public service
."
Claudio Muñoz Zúñiga, Chairman,
Telefonica Chile
"People voted according to issues that concern them based on what they see in
their daily lives
.

By failing to see this, it is experts who are living in the
fact-free zone
, not the new populists."



Co-creating greater societal value
for
An objective process
for countries to learn
from each other
Howard White
CEO, The Campbell Collaboration
Common problems, common approaches?
siloisation
popularity over ethics and standards
media dominance
mediamorphosis
new forms of technology and communications
pathos vs. logos
"We think this project contributes to fill data gaps on SMEs, and by so doing provides a valuable input to the monitoring of progress towards the UN SDGs.”
Martine Durand, Chief Statistician, OECD
A clear mission
but a highly complex one
Finding #3:
Regulation
is a space where the
old
& the
new
diverge.
Towards a post-truth world?
"businesses should make a positive contribution to
economic
,
environmental
and
social progress
."
Private entities
have become essential
to the implementation of
public policies.
To carry out its mandate, the OECD and
businesses must
work together
to achieve
common objectives
, through their
respective means.
37 member countries
working with + 120 countries
The OECD, a
spoilsport
for businesses?
Or a natural
ally
?
New Approaches to Economic Challenges
"
Governments
have to
rethink regulation
so that
new entrants
making new products can continue to thrive. It is very clear that we can do more."
Sang Woo Kim, President, Corporate Affairs Europe Samsung Electronics
From taxes...
...to tractors
"Some of the countries that are most vocal on tax actually control havens they could close down tomorrow. There is a
credibility gap
."
Pravin Jamandas Gordhan, Minister of Finance, South Africa
"Trade is not delivering because trade is not
sustainable
enough. It needs to deliver to all; it needs to address
inequality at a global level
."
Lilianne Ploumen, Minister for Foreign Trade & Development Cooperation, The Netherlands
"We have islands of phenomenal
digital prosperity
surrounded by a sea of people watching passively without the
skills
to take part or the
money
to buy the products."
Geoff Mulgan, CEO, NESTA
Globalisation?
Globalisation?
Isolation
Dis-
Trust
Integration
include
unite
connect
co-operate
resilient societies
economic integration
citizen digital empowerment
"integrated" policy-making
openness
100%
1% vs. 99%
barriers
fragmentation
Dis-
disconnect
divide
separate
exclude
Anti-
OECD today
Better policies for inclusive societies
Strengthening our
listening function & engaging with
policy-shapers
and
citizens
alike
✳✱*
MEDIA
FOUNDATIONS
NGOs
BUSINESS
ACADEMIA
& THINK TANKS
ENGAGED CITIZENS
TRADE UNIONS
IGOs
GOVERNMENTS
LEGISLATORS
LEGISLATORS
Shav Shaffir, Member of Parliament, Israel
OECD Global Parliamentary Network
Thematic Approach:
Parliamentary groups on tax

&
on

integrity and transparency
National and beyond:
The European Parliament,
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council
of Europe, NATO Parliamentary Assembly
MEDIA
Frances O’Grady, General Secretary, Trades Union Congress
TRADE
UNIONS
BUSINESS
Divides...
Haves
Have nots
Gen Z
Baby boomers
Town
Metropolis
Winners
Losers
"People Like Us"
"The Other"
Men
Women
Native
Immigrant
Analogue
Digital
Career
Gig
Isolated
Integrated
Global governance
"Local control"
Robots
Humans
Full transcript