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Transcript of 4.4 outline
A gene is a section of a DNA molecule that contains information to code for one specific protein. Each gene is placed at a specific place on a chromosome. Order of the Bases The order of the nitrogen bases along a genetic code that specifies what type of protein will be produced. How cells make proteins! During protein synthesis, the cell uses information from a gene on a chromosome to produce a specific protein. the role of rna before protein synthesis can take place, a messenger must first carry the gentic code from the Dna inside the nucleus into the cytoplasm. the genetic messenger is call RNA Types of RNA Messenger RNA- copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus, and carries the message to the ribosome in the cytoplasm.
Transfer RNA- carries amino acids to the ribosome and adds them to the growing protein. Translating the code Process of protein synthesis: Step one: In the nucleas, a DNA molecule serves as a pattern for making messenger RNA. The DNA molecule unzips between base pairs. RNA bases match up along one of the DNA strands. The genetic information in the DNA is transfered to the messenger RNA strand. Step 2: When the messenger RNA enters the cytoplasm, it attaches to a ribosome, where production of the protein chain begins. The ribosome moves along the messenger RNA strand. Step 3: Transfer RNA molecules carry specific amino acids the ribosomes. There they read the message in the messenger RNA by matching up with 3 letter codes of bases. The protein chain grows as each amino acid is attached. step 4: the protein chain continues to grow until the ribosome reaches a tree-letter code that acts as a stop sign. THe ribosome then releases the completed protein. Mutations Mutation- any change in a gene of chromosome.
Mutations can cause a cell to produce an incorrect protein during protein synthesis. As a result, the organism's trait or phenotype, may be different from what normally would have been. Types of Mutations: One type occurs in the DNA replication process, the other type occurs when chromosomes don't seperate correctley. Effects of mutations most mutations are harmful. Almost no mutations are helpful. Whether it's harmful depends on the enviroment. The End! A cell Color Blindness what is color blindess? Color blindness is a vision problem that makes it hard to tell the differences between certain colors what are the symptons? -trouble seeing colors and the brightness of colors in the usual way
-inablity to tell the difference between shades of the same or similar colors There is no treatment for color blindess! Color blindness test Color blindness is inherited. Most commonly passed from mother to son. A woman can be a carrier of the gene but will usually not be color blind herself. Men cannot be carriers of the gene. a lot of famous people have color blindness Statics: 8% of men and 0.5% of women web adresses: http://www.aao.org/newsroom/press_kit/upload/Eye-Health-Statistics-June-2009.pdf http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001997/ http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/colorblindness.html http://www.life123.com/question/Famous-People-with-Colorblindness what people see when they're color blind. another color blind test http://www.metacafe.com/watch/1484492/test_your_eye_color_blindness_test/