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The Visual Perception System
Transcript of The Visual Perception System
There are three types of Visual constancy:
1. Size 2. Shape
3. Brightness Linear perspective
Relative size – the larger object is perceived as closer.
Height in the visual field The
Visual Perception System Sensation hearing smell taste touch sight Perception "mmm sandwich crumbs are the best!" "I know there's peanuts here somewhere..." "umm...
Beethoven?" "I'm just sayin'... if that monkey doesn't stop poking me!" "Is that lunch grazing on the planes?" Visual Perception System Nervous system Eyes pathways areas of the brain that process visual information VITREOUS HUMOUR AQUEOUS HUMOUR CILIARY MUSCLES This first step of the eye receiving incoming light from the environment and focusing it onto the retina where an image of the visual stimulus is captured. 1. Reception: The process from sensation to perception takes 5 steps 2. Transduction: When electromagnetic energy (‘light’) hits the retina, the eye converts it to a form of energy that can be processed by the brain (electrochemical energy – which creates an electrical impulse). RODS CONES 3. Transmission: Involves sending information in the form of electrical impulses along the optic nerve to the brain 4. Selection: This stage is characterised by the filtering of incoming electrochemical energy for importance. This step of the process is unconscious to the individual, and, is important in ensuring the brain does not become over loaded with the immense quantity of information our senses pick up from our environment at any given time (This step is not in your text, but is outlined by other texts). 5. Organisation & Interpretation: Organisation – involves assembling or arranging the features of a visual image in a meaningful way.
Interpretation – is the process of assigning meaning to visual information so that we can understand what we are looking at. Rules that we apply to visual information to assist our organisation and interpretation of the information in consistent and meaningful ways. Visual Perception principles – Can be classified into 3 broad categories: Gestalt principles
Perceptual constancies Ways in which we organise the features of a visual scene by grouping them to perceive a whole, complete form.
Gestalt principles include...
Proximity 1. Gestalt Principles – Ability to estimate the distance of objects and perceive the world in 3D 1. Binocular depth cues – require the use of both eyes A) CONVERGENCE – detects distance via changes in the tension b/w muscles in the 2 eyes as they focus on a close object. B) RETINAL DISPARITY – The difference b/w the image picked up by the left eye vs. the right eye. The more different the image, the closer the object is (basically non-existent by 10 meters). 2. Monocular depth cues – only requires one eye A) ACCOMMODATION – automatic adjustment of the eye’s lens
Lens bulges to see items up close
Lens flattens to see objects from a distance http://www.kscience.co.uk/animations/eye.htm B) PICTORIAL CUES – a created a sense of depth using drawing techniques 3. Perceptual Constantcies: 2. Depth Perception: Depth cues – (translates 2D images from our retina into 3D vision) sources of info from the environment (external cues) or within our body (internal cues) that help us to perceive how far away objects are and therefore to perceive depth. The predisposition, or ‘readiness’, to perceive something in accordance with what we expect it to be. Perceptual Set The last 2 concepts for this chapter! 2 last things that can influence visual perception... Motivation Context Culture Emotional state Past Experience A misinterpretation of real sensory information
The effect of the illusion never disappears even when we are told how it works VISUAL ILLUSIONS: EXAMPLES:
a) Ames Room b) Muller Lyer FINALLY...