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Transcript of T8
1. The Written Foreign Language
T8. The Written Foreign Language. Approximation, Maturing and Improvement of the reading Writing Process. Reading Comprenhension: Techniques for Global and Specific Comprenhension. Written Expression: From interpretation to Production of Texts
According to structuralism it is secondary when learning a language It does not consider any specific characteristic as to need any special technique.
Although OL and WL have the same code:
- Their functioning is based on different norms.
- Receiver and transmitter don´t have the same context.
- There is lack of paralinguistic features
- Due to the difference if time invested between OL and WL it is necessary to use techniques to learn how to express with different intentions.
Since students might feel less motivated towards its development because it seems to be be more difficult we have to present written language as a means of communication
2. Approximation, maturing and Improvement of the Reading- Writing Process.
Not specified yet
4 skills recommendable practice in every lesson although some might be predomimnant. L,S, R and W
Reception before production
Input goes before output
Classification according to means:
Oral: S and L
Written: R and W
Classification according to participant´s activity:
Productive: S and W
receptive: L and R
Byrne, D. "Teaching witting skills English".Longman. burnt Mill. 1988.
Piaget, J. "Logic and Psycology"
Ellis, G. and Sinclair, B. "Learning to learn English". CUP. Cambridge, 1988
Definition o literacy
Stages of reading
2.3 Main methods for teaching reading and writing.
3 Main methods:
Synthetic: Combining the detailed elements of language
Analytic: Breaking down the larger units into their constituent elements
Mixed: Analytic and Synthetic.
Among these general we find some others like:
-Synthetic Phonic: Emphasis on letter sounds, set within a literacy rich environment, it promotes creativity.
-Alphabetic method: letters learned first with their sounds, then combined to syllables an then into words, ellaboration of the alphabetical system.
-Analytic or Embedded phonics: starts at the whole word level. Involves looking at patterns
-Look and say method (differs slightly from the previous): whole word recognition rather than individual words. flashcards with individual words and its correspondance image are used. can also be used at sentence level.
-Language Experience Approach: uses childs words to help him to read. Children may draw a picture and the teacher writes a sentence underneath. Children start tracing the sentence until they write it by their own.
- The whole language approach. Learning through trial and error as well as speak and listen. from the whole to the part and from the familiar to the unfamiliar
- Collaborative Strategic Reading: 1st the teacher show the strategies to work cooperatively in groups (i.e. modelling, roleplaying....)
Important ideas to teach reading.
Silent reading is not motivating to be practised in class. Guideline to improve reading skills.
- Show a wide variety of vocabulary in context.
-It needs to be routinary.
- Reading a book together when facing a new book and give a special treatment to the fact of reading.
- Practice different ways of reading (from skimming to scanning)
To improve reading and writing it can be used authentic marterial. (ie. supermarket ads, delivery menus, recipes, tabloids...)
3. Reading comprenhension: techniques for Global and Specific Comprenhension of texts
It involves interaction in different ways. Good readers must:
- know why they read a text
-gain an overview of the text in advance.
- make predictions and associate ideas
- read selectively.
- revise the previous knowledge.
-Figure out meanings of unfamiliar words.
- remember important information.
-reread notes and interpret text.
-review important points after reading.
Reading in Fl concerns on locating specific information or reading for pleassure so this list is just a reminder of maximal.
- Obtaining information
-Communicate in writing
-Reading for pleasure.
Intensive and Extensive reading
Styles of reading; Skimmimg, Scanning and Critical reading
Activities to practice reading:
2.1 Definition o literacy
Traditional: The ability to use the language i.e read, listen....
Modern: Reading and writing in a level adequate for written communication that enables to function at society.
2.2 Stages of reading development
Stage 0. Pre- reading:
0 - 6 yo. Use of simbolic information.
Uses a combination of reading some letters in the words. first and final letters are usually the most important.
Many learner centred activities to promote sucessful readers.
Stage 1. Initial reading or decoding stage:
6-7 yo. More aware of letter sound relationship. Learners realize that letters and letters combination represent sounds
Bottom up approach more appropiate (automacity vs multitask)
Stage 2. Confirmation and fluency.
7-8 yo. Needs to develop fluency and comprenhension to promote good readers.
recognition of pattern of words and then word recognition.
Needs great amount of practice and great variety of texts.
Stage 3. Reading for learning
8-14 yo. Learner uses reading as a way of acquiring new knowledge
The importance of word meaning, previous knowledge and strategic knowledge.
14-18 yo. The difference with the previous stage remains on the reader learning from various viewpoints
18- above. Now the reader can evaluate what´s been read and can contruct knowledge on a high level of abstraction.
4 Written expression; From interpretation to the production off text.
It helps to reinforce what has been learnt before orally.
Difference in the autonomy they have in the process through the stages.
4.1 Controlled practice stage
They manage a certain amount of linguistic material
- presentation of scrambled sentences or dialogue to order them logically
- presentation of written text some words in random order.
- presentation of a written text which one interlocutor says.
- presentation of written text with alternative expressions to choose one.
4.2 Guided or directed practice
Students choose linguistic elements with the help of teacher´s orientations, their own version is reflected, it forces to introduce new linguistic structures. Always referred to practice communicative skills. Emails and letters as exaple to practice
- complete gaps
- link sentences logically
- use pictures to express ideas by writting a short essay.
- listen and take notes
- use instructions to write a short text
4.3 Free production stage
Students write wih minimal help
- read in advance
- talk about a topic
- write a draft
it is essential to show the communicative aspects of the activity.
4.4 Assessement of written language
Here we have to mention how it is developed through our current legal reference.
Procedure to make a test:
- Decide type of exams.
- Be aware of the linguistic item to cover and lenght
-Give an example
- Use a qualitative register of the development of the process acquired
- Plan the feedback to be revised in common