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APA Style: The Details
Transcript of APA Style: The Details
- a set of rules developed to assist reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences
* common way of communicating
* way to locate resources
APA format reveals certain things about your academic community.
In academic writing, when
you provide a fact, you
must give credit to the
person or people
whose words and
ideas your are
Why use APA?
- uniform format
Other formats for citation:
- MLA - liberal arts and humanities
- Chicago - history and religion
- CSE - biology, natural and applied
- Columbia - humanities and sciences
- AMA - American Medical Association
- AP - Associated Press
format - the way a writer presents written information
* APA's global format * APA's sentence-level format
Sorkin (2010) asserts that while
the character may be named
Zuckerberg and the entity named
Facebook, the movie is not based
on true life events. While the
screenwriter may argue for its
fictional qualities, others point
out the fact that dates, events,
and details in the movie match up
to the actual dates, events, and
details as they occurred in real
life (Winklevoss, 2010). As part
owner of the multimillion dollar
company, Parker (2010) explained,
"They may say it is fiction, but
the truth is, they are speaking
fiction" (p. 12).
Before you start writing consider...
- Who is your audience?
- What is your topic?
- What is your purpose for writing this?
- What voice are you using?
- What is the format?
MLA Style vs APA Style:
What do they have in common?
- provide process of citing
- use 1' margins on white 8.5' X 11' paper
- prefer 12 pt font, Times New Roman,
- double spaced
- require list of references in alphabet-
ical order at the end of
- requires in-text citations
- use of quotes (long and short), para-
phrasing, and summarizing information from
- neither use foot notes or end notes
- must follow precisely to decrease chance
Format of a formal paper:
- Title page
- In-text citations
APA: The details are important.
- first page
- required in APA (not MLA)
- first impression -> get it right
Running head - (abbreviation of the title) printed at the top of each page to identify the paper for the reader
- limited to 50 characters
The words "Running head" - only
on title page
Page header - appears along
with page numbers on all pages
Information on title page
(centered and double spaced)
Title of the Paper
- concise, specific, summary of main idea
- 10 - 12 words max
- avoid words that serve no purpose
- uses upper and lower case
- also appears on the first page of the text
-First Middle Initial Last
Ex. Shawn C. Carter
- more than one author? Type
in order of their contributions
to the paper
- a concise summary of the key points
of your research
- one paragraph double spaced
- usually between 150 and 250 words
APA uses a specific heading system to help direct readers along their way.
- always use the headings in order, beginning with level 1
In-text citations: short quote, long quote,
summary, and paraphrasing
If you are summarizing or paraphrasing someone's ideas, you only have to make reference to the author and the year of publication. APA does not require a page number for summary or paraphrasing.
Ex. Freire (1970) examine how human beings are not built in silence, but in word, work, action, and reflection. By having class discussions and reflecting on their own, students are constantly building new knowledge (Bruffee, 2001). Another kind of knowledge-building takes place outside of the classroom, in grey spaces like writing centers and peer tutoring centers, where students are teachers and learners simultaneously.
short quotes - fewer than 40 words
- in the text in quotation marks
- include the page number
You have two options of how
to set up short quotes:
According to Hunter (2006), "Treat the
patient, not the X-ray" (p. 67).
When considering patient recovery, "Treat the patient, not the X-ray" (Hunter, 2006, p. 67).
long quotes - 40 words or more
- no quotation marks
- double-spaced, free-standing blocks
indented 5 spaces from the left margin
While examining style and format, some interesting data began to emerge. Jones's (1998) study found the following:
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
- provides the information necessary for
the reader to locate any resource cited in
- new page separate from pages with any
- all text double spaced, just like the
rest of your paper
- all lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin
- author's name inverted (last name, first initial) and placed in alphabetical order in the list
- article titles not in quotes
- in certain titles, first words capitalized only
- books italicized
OWL at Purdue
OWL at ECU
citations needed -
summarizing someone else's ideas
What is the difference between
intentional and unintentional
University Writing Center at ECU
- justify project/program
--> persuade your audience
Type of appeals:
using the "language
of your discipline"
read the articles
from your seminar
"like a writer"
Kerri Bright Flinchbaugh
University Writing Program
East Carolina University
Why does APA Style matter?