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Urban Transformation & Renewal of Paris
Transcript of Urban Transformation & Renewal of Paris
1860- City Proper, 1.6 million; Urban Area, 2 million: Fastest Growth under Napoleon III & Haussmann
1872- City Proper, 1.85 million:Growth slowed due to Franco Prussian War
1885- City Proper, 2.3 million; Urban Area, 3 million
1905- City Proper, 2.75 million; Urban Area, 4 million
-Coordinates : 48° 51′ 24″ N, 2° 21′ 3″ E
-Elevation: 35m above sea level to 130m above sea level
-Area: An oval measuring 86.9 sqkm
-Climate: Mild and moderately wet throughout the year
Essential features and structures:
-Arc de Triomphe
Transit & Movement Georges-Eugene Haussmann
-Baron and city planner
-Witnessed London’s transformation during his exile in 1840
-Napoleon III want to modernize Paris
-establishing sewage system, building larger houses, public parks
-Modified Rue Rambuteau, cutting it to a moderate-sized avenue
-Widened Paris’ streets to improve sanitation, aestheticism, and network for Police force
-Also to prevent easily constructing blockades and barricades
-Transformed buildings with stone decorations, rustication and balconies
-Made transportation in and out of the city accessible through railroads
-His changes still used to this day
Living and Working Sectors Public Works & Services National Identity Second Empire
-Napoleon III (Mid 19th century) instituted many renovation projects in Paris.
-Became a glamorous city of tall, imposing buildings
-Homes embellished with paired columns, elaborate wrought iron cresting on rooftops
-Mansard roofs: boxy, trapezoid shape
-Perpendicular roof creates a sense of majesty & increase usable living space in attic
-Both practical and unique to France
-Adopted older, classical, Victorian style buildings
Arc de Triomphe
- Finished building in 1836
-It honors those who fought and died for France in the Revolution and Napoleonic Wars
From 1882 to 1886, a sculpture of Alexandre Falquiere “le triomphe de la Revolution” featured a chariot preparing to crush anarchy and despotism.
-A symbol of peace and revolution.
Notre Dame Restoration
-Restoration initiated in 1845 and lasted 25 years
-Construction of a spire, as well as addition of chimeras
-Nearly set alight in 1871 during Paris Commune
-Overarching symbol of Catholicism in France.
Opera & Theatre
-Opera-Comique and Theatre Lyrique
-Major opera houses in the middle of the 19th century
-Gave cultural unity especially to the middle class
-First public transport: “five-penny” horse drawn carriages
-Other modes were introduced: railway, buses, etc.
-Eiffel tower: presented at Paris Exposition (World Fair) of 1889
-Presented during 100th anniversary of storming of the Bastille
-Most prominent symbol of Paris and modernity
-Interestingly, it was criticized by the public when built
-Became valuable for communication purposes, not torn down in 1909
City planning for uniformity but also to help modernize Paris
Helped create a uniquely Paris urban lifestyle
Most of the city planning remains to this day
Improvement to quality of life greatly
Second Empire renovations were so profound that all subsequent influences had to refer to, adapt to, reuse or reject many of its elements
Long aqueducts were built
-bring distant waters to Paris
transported spring waters 130km
-M. Belgrand's Vanne Aqueduct
transported spring water from Villeneuve l'Archeveque 170km Haussmann & Water
-Sewage system 600km long
-Double water supply network
-one for drinking and non-drinking
-Still used today Baron Haussmann
-Plan for modernization of Paris 1852 to 1870
-Wide streets, broad vistas, parks, avenues
-Paris you see today thanks to him
-Disease epidemics ceased, traffic circulation improved, regulations on buildings, public parks, sewers, waterworks, city facilities, and public monuments
-Criticized by some contemporaries
-Long straight, wide boulevards with cafes and shops
-New urban scenario
-Goal was for public authority to better control the capital
-Open up roads
-railway system: helped growth of industry
-Public transport allowed people to move to bigger cities
-Modern public facilities- clean water
-Expand Paris significantly
-Street blocks: homogenous architectural wholes
-Regulations for Parisian building
-Uniformity important for efficiency and unity
-Exempted buildings from a dependence on decoration Districts:
-Grand Boulevards (large avenues) Opera district
-At the heart is Opera Garnier, built in 1860, is one of the most renowned opera houses.
-Opera district have banks, restaurants, cafe's and "Grands Magasins" (department stores)
-This transformed urban life in Paris.
-The butte (hill) became famous at the end of the 19th century when Montmartre became the center of
the artistic and intellectual life in Paris until World War I.
-Saint-Germain-des-Prés(runs along the southern shore of the Seine) is a charming district on the South
bank of the river Seine.
-District became the meeting place of artists (Delacroix, Ingres, Manet) and writers (Racine, Balzac, Georges Sand). Renovations:
-improve the housing conditions of the lower class
-in some neighborhoods, population density reached numbers of 250,000 people/sq. mile in conditions of very poor sanitation.
- In a slightly oversimplified way, they painted a portrait of the pre-Haussmannian building as a
synthesis of the Parisian social hierarchy: the bourgeoisie on the second floor, civil servants and
employees on the third and fourth, low-wage employees on the fifth, house staff, students and the poor under the eaves.
-Social imbalance between Paris's wealthy west and its underprivileged east.
-Therefore no eastern neighborhood in Paris benefited from renovations comparable to the large avenues surrounding the place de l'Étoile in the XVIe and XVIIe arrondissements.
-The poor were concentrated in arrondissements left aside by the city renovations.
-Location: center to the west had offices and wealthy neighborhoods; the east and outer rim had poorer housing and industry.