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SVA Edwards 1. Early Civilizations
Transcript of SVA Edwards 1. Early Civilizations
Civilizations Greeks &
Romans Cristendom Revolutions Globalization Jason D. Edwards Renaissance &
ASSESSMENTS Nile Sumerians Selectivity Change Over Time Cairo, 2011 sample debates GEOGRAPHIC
FEATURES: 1. The Nile's annual floods and
the consistent climate
2. The narrowness of the Nile valley and the presence of the river running through it
3. Egypt's isolation from other peoples
4. The combination of all these features CAUSES EFFECTS 1. Egyptians' optimistic attitudes toward life and death.
2. Contributed to early and strong political centralization.
3. Allowed for steady development.
4. Created the necessary conditions that allowed Egyptian kings to easily control their subjects Politheistic (over 3,000 gods)
Pharaoh was both the political and the religious head of the nation -considered the most powerful god of all RELIGION Ezekiel 29:3
Tell him, 'This is what the Almighty LORD says: I'm against you, Pharaoh, king of Egypt. You are like a monster crocodile lying in the Nile River. You say, "The Nile River is mine. I made it for myself." Pharaoh was the God of the Nile Obsession with afterlife sparked scientific advancement
Mummification The rich alluvial plain supported an abundant agriculture.
The lack of timber and stone forced it to develop trading to obtain these necessary materials.
Vulnerability to floods and invasions created a strain of pessimism in Sumerian thought.
It contributed to the idea of a patron god that either looked out for or punished by unleashing the forces of nature. Geography = Sumer + + + + writing
cuneiform Domination of both the government and the economy by a god-king.
Notable political and social stability.
A rich literature including religious myths, instructions on how to get ahead, fables, and love poems.
The establishment of three immense pyramids, tombs for kings, at Giza Characteristics of ancient Egypt: The Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II concluded the first known non-aggression pact with the Hittites. -Education offered the chance to rise through service in the government hierarchy.
-Bomen had the right to own property, initiate legal action, and enter the priesthood.
-Children were valued as security for the future.
-Free citizens often lived in as much poverty as slaves
-Communication by ship was much faster than overland transportation. Egyptian Society Adam - Noah - Abraham - Isaac - Jacob - Joseph - Moses Genesis 1-3 HUMAN NATURE:
-Needs redemption Genesis 6-9 GOD's NATURE:
-Just Genesis 18-25 -Called out of Ur
-Obeyed by faith
-Promise: people, land & blessing -Foreshadows Messiah
-Parallels with Jesus Genesis 21-26 First World
Problem Genesis 29-33 -The "heal-grabber:" stole brother Esau's birthright and blessing
-Was in turn deceived by father-in-law Laban -two wifes: Leah & Rachel
-Wrestled with God & name was changed to Israel
-Inherited the land and had 12 sons that become the 12 tribes of Israel Genesis 37-41 Dreams of great influence Thrown into pit
then sold into slavery Manages Potiphar's household Falsely accused Wrongfully imprisoned Earns trust and runs prison Delivers true interpretation of royal workers' dreams Forgotten about Remembered when Pharaoh has a dream Delivers true interpretation of Pharaoh's dream Appointed as Vice-Roy of Egypt Administers distribution of food during famine for entire region Exodus -Saved from death in Nile
-Adopted by Pharaoh's daughter
-Raised by Israelite mother
-Received premier royal education
-Attempted to force justice alone
-Fled to wilderness for 40 yrs (as shepherd)
-Called by God through burning bush
-Joined by brother Aaron as spokesman -Confronted Pharaoh and demanded freedom
-Represented God in sending 10 plagues
-Led Israelites into wilderness and followed God for 40 years
-National pledge to obey God at Sinai
-Ten Commandments & Golden Calf
-Handed leadership to Joshua for taking the promised land Ishtar Gate Hanging Gardens Babylon Zigurat City of Ur Sumerian Ruins Battle of Carchemish Lions Den -After around 2000 B.C., the Babylonian Kingdom established its control over lower Mesopotamia, subduing or destroying the Sumerian city-states.
-The greatest of the Babylonian kings was Hammurabi
-In the bloody Battle of Cachimish, king Nebuchadnezzar II defeated the joint Assyrians-Egyptian allies
-After this major vicotry, he conquered the smaller people-groups in the Fertile Crescent region, besieging key cities and collecting literary artifacts
-Three principal Babylonian gods were
Marduk (wisdom & arts)
Nabu (knowledge & writing) and
Ishtar (fertility & war) What did you find interesting and/or surprising?
What are some aspects of modern-day Indian culture that may have originated with the Indus Valley civilization?
In what ways was this civilization quite advanced? Give specific examples.
Starting with the Indus example and generalizing to our context today, how and why do people organize themselves?
Persia Assyria The Assyrians accomplished all of the following:
-Dominion over most of the Near East for a period.
-Introducing Aramaic as a common language throughout their empire.
-Creating magnificent works of art.
-Creating a society that embraced militarism.
*But they were unable to eliminate rebelliousness among their subject peoples. Darius (aka Cyrus) was the most skilled Persian ruler -Temples received the loot of victories as offerings unto the gods.
-Priest and nobles would then trade the treasures for other commodities.
-Merchants served as 'middlemen' for the exchange of goods. -Peasants gained access to bronze weapons which turned the country sides into regions of continuous upheaval.
-The definition and measurement of wealth shifted -precious metals and stones were more portable and defensible than land and grains.
Sargon the Akkadian Reading Check -Side 1: Describe the reading in detail
1) What percentage of the assigned reading did you complete
2) What did you find surprising or interesting?
3) What was the king's name?
4) How many legitimate wives did the king have?
5) In what city was this palace located?
6) In what modern day country would this be found?
6.5) Socratic Circle 1) What did you find surprising or interesting?
2) According to Maspero, what was life like for the women at Sargon’s palace?
3) Why do men tend to be in power over women?
4) Is this good/best for society and government? Why? -Even land, which once belonged exclusively to the gods or king became an exchangeable good.
-This group grew to fill the social gap between the wealthy rulers and the poor masses. Civilization flourishes through war. Our motion: -Reference specific examples from our course so far
-Explain your position in light of each civilization we've studied
-Keep a clear focus on defending your stance on the prompt (only) As you prepare, in order to do well ...